reference, declarationdefinition
definition → references, declarations, derived classes, virtual overrides
reference to multiple definitions → definitions
unreferenced
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
   10
   11
   12
   13
   14
   15
   16
   17
   18
   19
   20
   21
   22
   23
   24
   25
   26
   27
   28
   29
   30
   31
   32
   33
   34
   35
   36
   37
   38
   39
   40
   41
   42
   43
   44
   45
   46
   47
   48
   49
   50
   51
   52
   53
   54
   55
   56
   57
   58
   59
   60
   61
   62
   63
   64
   65
   66
   67
   68
   69
   70
   71
   72
   73
   74
   75
   76
   77
   78
   79
   80
   81
   82
   83
   84
   85
   86
   87
   88
   89
   90
   91
   92
   93
   94
   95
   96
   97
   98
   99
  100
  101
  102
  103
  104
  105
  106
  107
  108
  109
  110
  111
  112
  113
  114
  115
  116
  117
  118
  119
  120
  121
  122
  123
  124
  125
  126
  127
  128
  129
  130
  131
  132
  133
  134
  135
  136
  137
  138
  139
  140
  141
  142
  143
  144
  145
  146
  147
  148
  149
  150
  151
  152
  153
  154
  155
  156
  157
  158
  159
  160
  161
  162
  163
  164
  165
  166
  167
  168
  169
  170
  171
  172
  173
  174
  175
  176
  177
  178
  179
  180
  181
  182
  183
  184
  185
  186
  187
  188
  189
  190
  191
  192
  193
  194
  195
  196
  197
  198
  199
  200
  201
  202
  203
  204
  205
  206
  207
  208
  209
  210
  211
  212
  213
  214
  215
  216
  217
  218
  219
  220
  221
  222
  223
  224
  225
  226
  227
  228
  229
  230
  231
  232
  233
  234
  235
  236
  237
  238
  239
  240
  241
  242
  243
  244
  245
  246
  247
  248
  249
  250
  251
  252
  253
  254
  255
  256
  257
  258
  259
  260
  261
  262
  263
  264
  265
  266
  267
  268
  269
  270
  271
  272
  273
  274
  275
  276
  277
  278
  279
  280
  281
  282
  283
  284
  285
  286
  287
  288
  289
  290
  291
  292
  293
  294
  295
  296
  297
  298
  299
  300
  301
  302
  303
  304
  305
  306
  307
  308
  309
  310
  311
  312
  313
  314
  315
  316
  317
  318
  319
  320
  321
  322
  323
  324
  325
  326
  327
  328
  329
  330
  331
  332
  333
  334
  335
  336
  337
  338
  339
  340
  341
  342
  343
  344
  345
  346
  347
  348
  349
  350
  351
  352
  353
  354
  355
  356
  357
  358
  359
  360
  361
  362
  363
  364
  365
  366
  367
  368
  369
  370
  371
  372
  373
  374
  375
  376
  377
  378
  379
  380
  381
  382
  383
  384
  385
  386
  387
  388
  389
  390
  391
  392
  393
  394
  395
  396
  397
  398
  399
  400
  401
  402
  403
  404
  405
  406
  407
  408
  409
  410
  411
  412
  413
  414
  415
  416
  417
  418
  419
  420
  421
  422
  423
  424
  425
  426
  427
  428
  429
  430
  431
  432
  433
  434
  435
  436
  437
  438
  439
  440
  441
  442
  443
  444
  445
  446
  447
  448
  449
  450
  451
  452
  453
  454
  455
  456
  457
  458
  459
  460
  461
  462
  463
  464
  465
  466
  467
  468
  469
  470
  471
  472
  473
  474
  475
  476
  477
  478
  479
  480
  481
  482
  483
  484
  485
  486
  487
  488
  489
  490
  491
  492
  493
  494
  495
  496
  497
  498
  499
  500
  501
  502
  503
  504
  505
  506
  507
  508
  509
  510
  511
  512
  513
  514
  515
  516
  517
  518
  519
  520
  521
  522
  523
  524
  525
  526
  527
  528
  529
  530
  531
  532
  533
  534
  535
  536
  537
  538
  539
  540
  541
  542
  543
  544
  545
  546
  547
  548
  549
  550
  551
  552
  553
  554
  555
  556
  557
  558
  559
  560
  561
  562
  563
  564
  565
  566
  567
  568
  569
  570
  571
  572
  573
  574
  575
  576
  577
  578
  579
  580
  581
  582
  583
  584
  585
  586
  587
  588
  589
  590
  591
  592
  593
  594
  595
  596
  597
  598
  599
  600
  601
  602
  603
  604
  605
  606
  607
  608
  609
  610
  611
  612
  613
  614
  615
  616
  617
  618
  619
  620
  621
  622
  623
  624
  625
  626
  627
  628
  629
  630
  631
  632
  633
  634
  635
  636
  637
  638
  639
  640
  641
  642
  643
  644
  645
  646
  647
  648
  649
  650
  651
  652
  653
  654
  655
  656
  657
  658
  659
  660
  661
  662
  663
  664
  665
  666
  667
  668
  669
  670
  671
  672
  673
  674
  675
  676
  677
  678
  679
  680
  681
  682
  683
  684
  685
  686
  687
  688
  689
  690
  691
  692
  693
  694
  695
  696
  697
  698
  699
  700
  701
  702
  703
  704
  705
  706
  707
  708
  709
  710
  711
  712
  713
  714
  715
  716
  717
  718
  719
  720
  721
  722
  723
  724
  725
  726
  727
  728
  729
  730
  731
  732
  733
  734
  735
  736
  737
  738
  739
  740
  741
  742
  743
  744
  745
  746
  747
  748
  749
  750
  751
  752
  753
  754
  755
  756
  757
  758
  759
  760
  761
  762
  763
  764
  765
  766
  767
  768
  769
  770
  771
  772
  773
  774
  775
  776
  777
  778
  779
  780
  781
  782
  783
  784
  785
  786
  787
  788
  789
  790
  791
  792
  793
  794
  795
  796
  797
  798
  799
  800
  801
  802
  803
  804
  805
  806
  807
  808
  809
  810
  811
  812
  813
  814
  815
  816
  817
  818
  819
  820
  821
  822
  823
  824
  825
  826
  827
  828
  829
  830
  831
  832
  833
  834
  835
  836
  837
  838
  839
  840
  841
  842
  843
  844
  845
  846
  847
  848
  849
  850
  851
  852
  853
  854
  855
  856
  857
  858
  859
  860
  861
  862
  863
  864
  865
  866
  867
  868
  869
  870
  871
  872
  873
  874
  875
  876
  877
  878
  879
  880
  881
  882
  883
  884
  885
  886
  887
  888
  889
  890
  891
  892
  893
  894
  895
  896
  897
  898
  899
  900
  901
  902
  903
  904
  905
  906
  907
  908
  909
  910
  911
  912
  913
  914
  915
  916
  917
  918
  919
  920
  921
  922
  923
  924
  925
  926
  927
  928
  929
  930
  931
  932
  933
  934
  935
  936
  937
  938
  939
  940
  941
  942
  943
  944
  945
  946
  947
  948
  949
  950
  951
  952
  953
  954
  955
  956
  957
  958
  959
  960
  961
  962
  963
  964
  965
  966
  967
  968
  969
  970
  971
  972
  973
  974
  975
  976
  977
  978
  979
  980
  981
  982
  983
  984
  985
  986
  987
  988
  989
  990
  991
  992
  993
  994
  995
  996
  997
  998
  999
 1000
 1001
 1002
 1003
 1004
 1005
 1006
 1007
 1008
 1009
 1010
 1011
 1012
 1013
 1014
 1015
 1016
 1017
 1018
 1019
 1020
 1021
 1022
 1023
 1024
 1025
 1026
 1027
 1028
 1029
 1030
 1031
 1032
 1033
 1034
 1035
 1036
 1037
 1038
 1039
 1040
 1041
 1042
 1043
 1044
 1045
 1046
 1047
 1048
 1049
 1050
 1051
 1052
 1053
 1054
 1055
 1056
 1057
 1058
 1059
 1060
 1061
 1062
 1063
 1064
 1065
 1066
 1067
 1068
 1069
 1070
 1071
 1072
 1073
 1074
 1075
 1076
 1077
 1078
 1079
 1080
 1081
 1082
 1083
 1084
 1085
 1086
 1087
 1088
 1089
 1090
 1091
 1092
 1093
 1094
 1095
 1096
 1097
 1098
 1099
 1100
 1101
 1102
 1103
 1104
 1105
 1106
 1107
 1108
 1109
 1110
 1111
 1112
 1113
 1114
 1115
 1116
 1117
 1118
 1119
 1120
 1121
 1122
 1123
 1124
 1125
 1126
 1127
 1128
 1129
 1130
 1131
 1132
 1133
 1134
 1135
 1136
 1137
 1138
 1139
 1140
 1141
 1142
 1143
 1144
 1145
 1146
 1147
 1148
 1149
 1150
 1151
 1152
 1153
 1154
 1155
 1156
 1157
 1158
 1159
 1160
 1161
 1162
 1163
 1164
 1165
 1166
 1167
 1168
 1169
 1170
 1171
 1172
 1173
 1174
 1175
 1176
 1177
 1178
 1179
 1180
 1181
 1182
 1183
 1184
 1185
 1186
 1187
 1188
 1189
 1190
 1191
 1192
 1193
 1194
 1195
 1196
 1197
 1198
 1199
 1200
 1201
 1202
 1203
 1204
 1205
 1206
 1207
 1208
 1209
 1210
 1211
 1212
 1213
 1214
 1215
 1216
 1217
 1218
 1219
 1220
 1221
 1222
 1223
 1224
 1225
 1226
 1227
 1228
 1229
 1230
 1231
 1232
 1233
 1234
 1235
 1236
 1237
 1238
 1239
 1240
 1241
 1242
 1243
 1244
 1245
 1246
 1247
 1248
 1249
 1250
 1251
 1252
 1253
 1254
 1255
 1256
 1257
 1258
 1259
 1260
 1261
 1262
 1263
 1264
 1265
 1266
 1267
 1268
 1269
 1270
 1271
 1272
 1273
 1274
 1275
 1276
 1277
 1278
 1279
 1280
 1281
 1282
 1283
 1284
 1285
 1286
 1287
 1288
 1289
 1290
 1291
 1292
 1293
 1294
 1295
 1296
 1297
 1298
 1299
 1300
 1301
 1302
 1303
 1304
 1305
 1306
 1307
 1308
 1309
 1310
 1311
 1312
 1313
 1314
 1315
 1316
 1317
 1318
 1319
 1320
 1321
 1322
 1323
 1324
 1325
 1326
 1327
 1328
 1329
 1330
 1331
 1332
 1333
 1334
 1335
 1336
 1337
 1338
 1339
 1340
 1341
 1342
 1343
 1344
 1345
 1346
 1347
 1348
 1349
 1350
 1351
 1352
 1353
 1354
 1355
 1356
 1357
 1358
 1359
 1360
 1361
 1362
 1363
 1364
 1365
 1366
 1367
 1368
 1369
 1370
 1371
 1372
 1373
 1374
 1375
 1376
 1377
 1378
 1379
 1380
 1381
 1382
 1383
 1384
 1385
 1386
 1387
 1388
 1389
 1390
 1391
 1392
 1393
 1394
 1395
 1396
 1397
 1398
 1399
 1400
 1401
 1402
 1403
 1404
 1405
 1406
 1407
 1408
 1409
 1410
 1411
 1412
 1413
 1414
 1415
 1416
 1417
 1418
 1419
 1420
 1421
 1422
 1423
 1424
 1425
 1426
 1427
 1428
 1429
 1430
 1431
 1432
 1433
 1434
 1435
 1436
 1437
 1438
 1439
 1440
 1441
 1442
 1443
 1444
 1445
 1446
 1447
 1448
 1449
 1450
 1451
 1452
 1453
 1454
 1455
 1456
 1457
 1458
 1459
 1460
 1461
 1462
 1463
 1464
 1465
 1466
 1467
 1468
 1469
 1470
 1471
 1472
 1473
 1474
 1475
 1476
 1477
 1478
 1479
 1480
 1481
 1482
 1483
 1484
 1485
 1486
 1487
 1488
 1489
 1490
 1491
 1492
 1493
 1494
 1495
 1496
 1497
 1498
 1499
 1500
 1501
 1502
 1503
 1504
 1505
 1506
 1507
 1508
 1509
 1510
 1511
 1512
 1513
 1514
 1515
 1516
 1517
 1518
 1519
 1520
 1521
 1522
 1523
 1524
 1525
 1526
 1527
 1528
 1529
 1530
 1531
 1532
 1533
 1534
 1535
 1536
 1537
 1538
 1539
 1540
 1541
 1542
 1543
 1544
 1545
 1546
 1547
 1548
 1549
 1550
 1551
 1552
 1553
 1554
 1555
 1556
 1557
 1558
 1559
 1560
 1561
 1562
 1563
 1564
 1565
 1566
 1567
 1568
 1569
 1570
 1571
 1572
 1573
 1574
 1575
 1576
 1577
 1578
 1579
 1580
 1581
 1582
 1583
 1584
 1585
 1586
 1587
 1588
 1589
 1590
 1591
 1592
 1593
 1594
 1595
 1596
 1597
 1598
 1599
 1600
 1601
 1602
 1603
 1604
 1605
 1606
 1607
 1608
 1609
 1610
 1611
 1612
 1613
 1614
 1615
 1616
 1617
 1618
 1619
 1620
 1621
 1622
 1623
 1624
 1625
 1626
 1627
 1628
 1629
 1630
 1631
 1632
 1633
 1634
 1635
 1636
 1637
 1638
 1639
 1640
 1641
 1642
 1643
 1644
 1645
 1646
 1647
 1648
 1649
 1650
 1651
 1652
 1653
 1654
 1655
 1656
 1657
 1658
 1659
 1660
 1661
 1662
 1663
 1664
 1665
 1666
 1667
 1668
 1669
 1670
 1671
 1672
 1673
 1674
 1675
 1676
 1677
 1678
 1679
 1680
 1681
 1682
 1683
 1684
 1685
 1686
 1687
 1688
 1689
 1690
 1691
 1692
 1693
 1694
 1695
 1696
 1697
 1698
 1699
 1700
 1701
 1702
 1703
 1704
 1705
 1706
 1707
 1708
 1709
 1710
 1711
 1712
 1713
 1714
 1715
 1716
 1717
 1718
 1719
 1720
 1721
 1722
 1723
 1724
 1725
 1726
 1727
 1728
 1729
 1730
 1731
 1732
 1733
 1734
 1735
 1736
 1737
 1738
 1739
 1740
 1741
 1742
 1743
 1744
 1745
 1746
 1747
 1748
 1749
 1750
 1751
 1752
 1753
 1754
 1755
 1756
 1757
 1758
 1759
 1760
 1761
 1762
 1763
 1764
 1765
 1766
 1767
 1768
 1769
 1770
 1771
 1772
 1773
 1774
 1775
 1776
 1777
 1778
 1779
 1780
 1781
 1782
 1783
 1784
 1785
 1786
 1787
 1788
 1789
 1790
 1791
 1792
 1793
 1794
 1795
 1796
 1797
 1798
 1799
 1800
 1801
 1802
 1803
 1804
 1805
 1806
 1807
 1808
 1809
 1810
 1811
 1812
 1813
 1814
 1815
 1816
 1817
 1818
 1819
 1820
 1821
 1822
 1823
 1824
 1825
 1826
 1827
 1828
 1829
 1830
 1831
 1832
 1833
 1834
 1835
 1836
 1837
 1838
 1839
 1840
 1841
 1842
 1843
 1844
 1845
 1846
 1847
 1848
 1849
 1850
 1851
 1852
 1853
 1854
 1855
 1856
 1857
 1858
 1859
 1860
 1861
 1862
 1863
 1864
 1865
 1866
 1867
 1868
 1869
 1870
 1871
 1872
 1873
 1874
 1875
 1876
 1877
 1878
 1879
 1880
 1881
 1882
 1883
 1884
 1885
 1886
 1887
 1888
 1889
 1890
 1891
 1892
 1893
 1894
 1895
 1896
 1897
 1898
 1899
 1900
 1901
 1902
 1903
 1904
 1905
 1906
 1907
 1908
 1909
 1910
 1911
 1912
 1913
 1914
 1915
 1916
 1917
 1918
 1919
 1920
 1921
 1922
 1923
 1924
 1925
 1926
 1927
 1928
 1929
 1930
 1931
 1932
 1933
 1934
 1935
 1936
 1937
 1938
 1939
 1940
 1941
 1942
 1943
 1944
 1945
 1946
 1947
 1948
 1949
 1950
 1951
 1952
 1953
 1954
 1955
 1956
 1957
 1958
 1959
 1960
 1961
 1962
 1963
 1964
 1965
 1966
 1967
 1968
 1969
 1970
 1971
 1972
 1973
 1974
 1975
 1976
 1977
 1978
 1979
 1980
 1981
 1982
 1983
 1984
 1985
 1986
 1987
 1988
 1989
 1990
 1991
 1992
 1993
 1994
 1995
 1996
 1997
 1998
 1999
 2000
 2001
 2002
 2003
 2004
 2005
 2006
 2007
 2008
 2009
 2010
 2011
 2012
 2013
 2014
 2015
 2016
 2017
 2018
 2019
 2020
 2021
 2022
 2023
 2024
 2025
 2026
 2027
 2028
 2029
 2030
 2031
 2032
 2033
 2034
 2035
 2036
 2037
 2038
 2039
 2040
 2041
 2042
 2043
 2044
 2045
 2046
 2047
 2048
 2049
 2050
 2051
 2052
 2053
 2054
 2055
 2056
 2057
 2058
 2059
 2060
 2061
 2062
 2063
 2064
 2065
 2066
 2067
 2068
 2069
 2070
 2071
 2072
 2073
 2074
 2075
 2076
 2077
 2078
 2079
 2080
 2081
 2082
 2083
 2084
 2085
 2086
 2087
 2088
 2089
 2090
 2091
 2092
 2093
 2094
 2095
 2096
 2097
 2098
 2099
 2100
 2101
 2102
 2103
 2104
 2105
 2106
 2107
 2108
 2109
 2110
 2111
 2112
 2113
 2114
 2115
 2116
 2117
 2118
 2119
 2120
 2121
 2122
 2123
 2124
 2125
 2126
 2127
 2128
 2129
 2130
 2131
 2132
 2133
 2134
 2135
 2136
 2137
 2138
 2139
 2140
 2141
 2142
 2143
 2144
 2145
 2146
 2147
 2148
 2149
 2150
 2151
 2152
 2153
 2154
 2155
 2156
 2157
 2158
 2159
 2160
 2161
 2162
 2163
 2164
 2165
 2166
 2167
 2168
 2169
 2170
 2171
 2172
 2173
 2174
 2175
 2176
 2177
 2178
 2179
 2180
 2181
 2182
 2183
 2184
 2185
 2186
 2187
 2188
 2189
 2190
 2191
 2192
 2193
 2194
 2195
 2196
 2197
 2198
 2199
 2200
 2201
 2202
 2203
 2204
 2205
 2206
 2207
 2208
 2209
 2210
 2211
 2212
 2213
 2214
 2215
 2216
 2217
 2218
 2219
 2220
 2221
 2222
 2223
 2224
 2225
 2226
 2227
 2228
 2229
 2230
 2231
 2232
 2233
 2234
 2235
 2236
 2237
 2238
 2239
 2240
 2241
 2242
 2243
 2244
 2245
 2246
 2247
 2248
 2249
 2250
 2251
 2252
 2253
 2254
 2255
 2256
 2257
 2258
 2259
 2260
 2261
 2262
 2263
 2264
 2265
 2266
 2267
 2268
 2269
 2270
 2271
 2272
 2273
 2274
 2275
 2276
 2277
 2278
 2279
 2280
 2281
 2282
 2283
 2284
 2285
 2286
 2287
 2288
 2289
 2290
 2291
 2292
 2293
 2294
 2295
 2296
 2297
 2298
 2299
 2300
 2301
 2302
 2303
 2304
 2305
 2306
 2307
 2308
 2309
 2310
 2311
 2312
 2313
 2314
 2315
 2316
 2317
 2318
 2319
 2320
 2321
 2322
 2323
 2324
 2325
 2326
 2327
 2328
 2329
 2330
 2331
 2332
 2333
 2334
 2335
 2336
 2337
 2338
 2339
 2340
 2341
 2342
 2343
 2344
 2345
 2346
 2347
 2348
 2349
 2350
 2351
 2352
 2353
 2354
 2355
 2356
 2357
 2358
 2359
 2360
 2361
 2362
 2363
 2364
 2365
 2366
 2367
 2368
 2369
 2370
 2371
 2372
 2373
 2374
 2375
 2376
 2377
 2378
 2379
 2380
 2381
 2382
 2383
 2384
 2385
 2386
 2387
 2388
 2389
 2390
 2391
 2392
 2393
 2394
 2395
 2396
 2397
 2398
 2399
 2400
 2401
 2402
 2403
 2404
 2405
 2406
 2407
 2408
 2409
 2410
 2411
 2412
 2413
 2414
 2415
 2416
 2417
 2418
 2419
 2420
 2421
 2422
 2423
 2424
 2425
 2426
 2427
 2428
 2429
 2430
 2431
 2432
 2433
 2434
 2435
 2436
 2437
 2438
 2439
 2440
 2441
 2442
 2443
 2444
 2445
 2446
 2447
 2448
 2449
 2450
 2451
 2452
 2453
 2454
 2455
 2456
 2457
 2458
 2459
 2460
 2461
 2462
 2463
 2464
 2465
 2466
 2467
 2468
 2469
 2470
 2471
 2472
 2473
 2474
 2475
 2476
 2477
 2478
 2479
 2480
 2481
 2482
 2483
 2484
 2485
 2486
 2487
 2488
 2489
 2490
 2491
 2492
 2493
 2494
 2495
 2496
 2497
 2498
 2499
 2500
 2501
 2502
 2503
 2504
 2505
 2506
 2507
 2508
 2509
 2510
 2511
 2512
 2513
 2514
 2515
 2516
 2517
 2518
 2519
 2520
 2521
 2522
 2523
 2524
 2525
 2526
 2527
 2528
 2529
 2530
 2531
 2532
 2533
 2534
 2535
 2536
 2537
 2538
 2539
 2540
 2541
 2542
 2543
 2544
 2545
 2546
 2547
 2548
 2549
 2550
 2551
 2552
 2553
 2554
 2555
 2556
 2557
 2558
 2559
 2560
 2561
 2562
 2563
 2564
 2565
 2566
 2567
 2568
 2569
 2570
 2571
 2572
 2573
 2574
 2575
 2576
 2577
 2578
 2579
 2580
 2581
 2582
 2583
 2584
 2585
 2586
 2587
 2588
 2589
 2590
 2591
 2592
 2593
 2594
 2595
 2596
 2597
 2598
 2599
 2600
 2601
 2602
 2603
 2604
 2605
 2606
 2607
 2608
 2609
 2610
 2611
 2612
 2613
 2614
 2615
 2616
 2617
 2618
 2619
 2620
 2621
 2622
 2623
 2624
 2625
 2626
 2627
 2628
 2629
 2630
 2631
 2632
 2633
 2634
 2635
 2636
 2637
 2638
 2639
 2640
 2641
 2642
 2643
 2644
 2645
 2646
 2647
 2648
 2649
 2650
 2651
 2652
 2653
 2654
 2655
 2656
 2657
 2658
 2659
 2660
 2661
 2662
 2663
 2664
 2665
 2666
 2667
 2668
 2669
 2670
 2671
 2672
 2673
 2674
 2675
 2676
 2677
 2678
 2679
 2680
 2681
 2682
 2683
 2684
 2685
 2686
 2687
 2688
 2689
 2690
 2691
 2692
 2693
 2694
 2695
 2696
 2697
 2698
 2699
 2700
 2701
 2702
 2703
 2704
 2705
 2706
 2707
 2708
 2709
 2710
 2711
 2712
 2713
 2714
 2715
 2716
 2717
 2718
 2719
 2720
 2721
 2722
 2723
 2724
 2725
 2726
 2727
 2728
 2729
 2730
 2731
 2732
 2733
 2734
 2735
 2736
 2737
 2738
 2739
 2740
 2741
 2742
 2743
 2744
 2745
 2746
 2747
 2748
 2749
 2750
 2751
 2752
 2753
 2754
 2755
 2756
 2757
 2758
 2759
 2760
 2761
 2762
 2763
 2764
 2765
 2766
 2767
 2768
 2769
 2770
 2771
 2772
 2773
 2774
 2775
 2776
 2777
 2778
 2779
 2780
 2781
 2782
 2783
 2784
 2785
 2786
 2787
 2788
 2789
 2790
 2791
 2792
 2793
 2794
 2795
 2796
 2797
 2798
 2799
 2800
 2801
 2802
 2803
 2804
 2805
 2806
 2807
 2808
 2809
 2810
 2811
 2812
 2813
 2814
 2815
 2816
 2817
 2818
 2819
 2820
 2821
 2822
 2823
 2824
 2825
 2826
 2827
 2828
 2829
 2830
 2831
 2832
 2833
 2834
 2835
 2836
 2837
 2838
 2839
 2840
 2841
 2842
 2843
 2844
 2845
 2846
 2847
 2848
 2849
 2850
 2851
 2852
 2853
 2854
 2855
 2856
 2857
 2858
 2859
 2860
 2861
 2862
 2863
 2864
 2865
 2866
 2867
 2868
 2869
 2870
 2871
 2872
 2873
 2874
 2875
 2876
 2877
 2878
 2879
 2880
 2881
 2882
 2883
 2884
 2885
 2886
 2887
 2888
 2889
 2890
 2891
 2892
 2893
 2894
 2895
 2896
 2897
 2898
 2899
 2900
 2901
 2902
 2903
 2904
 2905
 2906
 2907
 2908
 2909
 2910
 2911
 2912
 2913
 2914
 2915
 2916
 2917
 2918
 2919
 2920
 2921
 2922
 2923
 2924
 2925
 2926
 2927
 2928
 2929
 2930
 2931
 2932
 2933
 2934
 2935
 2936
 2937
 2938
 2939
 2940
 2941
 2942
 2943
 2944
 2945
 2946
 2947
 2948
 2949
 2950
 2951
 2952
 2953
 2954
 2955
 2956
 2957
 2958
 2959
 2960
 2961
 2962
 2963
 2964
 2965
 2966
 2967
 2968
 2969
 2970
 2971
 2972
 2973
 2974
 2975
 2976
 2977
 2978
 2979
 2980
 2981
 2982
 2983
 2984
 2985
 2986
 2987
 2988
 2989
 2990
 2991
 2992
 2993
 2994
 2995
 2996
 2997
 2998
 2999
 3000
 3001
 3002
 3003
 3004
 3005
 3006
 3007
 3008
 3009
 3010
 3011
 3012
 3013
 3014
 3015
 3016
 3017
 3018
 3019
 3020
 3021
 3022
 3023
 3024
 3025
 3026
 3027
 3028
 3029
 3030
 3031
 3032
 3033
 3034
 3035
 3036
 3037
 3038
 3039
 3040
 3041
 3042
 3043
 3044
 3045
 3046
 3047
 3048
 3049
 3050
 3051
 3052
 3053
 3054
 3055
 3056
 3057
 3058
 3059
 3060
 3061
 3062
 3063
 3064
 3065
 3066
 3067
 3068
 3069
 3070
 3071
 3072
 3073
 3074
 3075
 3076
 3077
 3078
 3079
 3080
 3081
 3082
 3083
 3084
 3085
 3086
 3087
 3088
 3089
 3090
 3091
 3092
 3093
 3094
 3095
 3096
 3097
 3098
 3099
 3100
 3101
 3102
 3103
 3104
 3105
 3106
 3107
 3108
 3109
 3110
 3111
 3112
 3113
 3114
 3115
 3116
 3117
 3118
 3119
 3120
 3121
 3122
 3123
 3124
 3125
 3126
 3127
 3128
 3129
 3130
 3131
 3132
 3133
 3134
 3135
 3136
 3137
 3138
 3139
 3140
 3141
 3142
 3143
 3144
 3145
 3146
 3147
 3148
 3149
 3150
 3151
 3152
 3153
 3154
 3155
 3156
 3157
 3158
 3159
 3160
 3161
 3162
 3163
 3164
 3165
 3166
 3167
 3168
 3169
 3170
 3171
 3172
 3173
 3174
 3175
 3176
 3177
 3178
 3179
 3180
 3181
 3182
 3183
 3184
 3185
 3186
 3187
 3188
 3189
 3190
 3191
 3192
 3193
 3194
 3195
 3196
 3197
 3198
 3199
 3200
 3201
 3202
 3203
 3204
 3205
 3206
 3207
 3208
 3209
 3210
 3211
 3212
 3213
 3214
 3215
 3216
 3217
 3218
 3219
 3220
 3221
 3222
 3223
 3224
 3225
 3226
 3227
 3228
 3229
 3230
 3231
 3232
 3233
 3234
 3235
 3236
 3237
 3238
 3239
 3240
 3241
 3242
 3243
 3244
 3245
 3246
 3247
 3248
 3249
 3250
 3251
 3252
 3253
 3254
 3255
 3256
 3257
 3258
 3259
 3260
 3261
 3262
 3263
 3264
 3265
 3266
 3267
 3268
 3269
 3270
 3271
 3272
 3273
 3274
 3275
 3276
 3277
 3278
 3279
 3280
 3281
 3282
 3283
 3284
 3285
 3286
 3287
 3288
 3289
 3290
 3291
 3292
 3293
 3294
 3295
 3296
 3297
 3298
 3299
 3300
 3301
 3302
 3303
 3304
 3305
 3306
 3307
 3308
 3309
 3310
 3311
 3312
 3313
 3314
 3315
 3316
 3317
 3318
 3319
 3320
 3321
 3322
 3323
 3324
 3325
 3326
 3327
 3328
 3329
 3330
 3331
 3332
 3333
 3334
 3335
 3336
 3337
 3338
 3339
 3340
 3341
 3342
 3343
 3344
 3345
 3346
 3347
 3348
 3349
 3350
 3351
 3352
 3353
 3354
 3355
 3356
 3357
 3358
 3359
 3360
 3361
 3362
 3363
 3364
 3365
 3366
 3367
 3368
 3369
 3370
 3371
 3372
 3373
 3374
 3375
 3376
 3377
 3378
 3379
 3380
 3381
 3382
 3383
 3384
 3385
 3386
 3387
 3388
 3389
 3390
 3391
 3392
 3393
 3394
 3395
 3396
 3397
 3398
 3399
 3400
 3401
 3402
 3403
 3404
 3405
 3406
 3407
 3408
 3409
 3410
 3411
 3412
 3413
 3414
 3415
 3416
 3417
 3418
 3419
 3420
 3421
 3422
 3423
 3424
 3425
 3426
 3427
 3428
 3429
 3430
 3431
 3432
 3433
 3434
 3435
 3436
 3437
 3438
 3439
 3440
 3441
 3442
 3443
 3444
 3445
 3446
 3447
 3448
 3449
 3450
 3451
 3452
 3453
 3454
 3455
 3456
 3457
 3458
 3459
 3460
 3461
 3462
 3463
 3464
 3465
 3466
 3467
 3468
 3469
 3470
 3471
 3472
 3473
 3474
 3475
 3476
 3477
 3478
 3479
 3480
 3481
 3482
 3483
 3484
 3485
 3486
 3487
 3488
 3489
 3490
 3491
 3492
 3493
 3494
 3495
 3496
 3497
 3498
 3499
 3500
 3501
 3502
 3503
 3504
 3505
 3506
 3507
 3508
 3509
 3510
 3511
 3512
 3513
 3514
 3515
 3516
 3517
 3518
 3519
 3520
 3521
 3522
 3523
 3524
 3525
 3526
 3527
 3528
 3529
 3530
 3531
 3532
 3533
 3534
 3535
 3536
 3537
 3538
 3539
 3540
 3541
 3542
 3543
 3544
 3545
 3546
 3547
 3548
 3549
 3550
 3551
 3552
 3553
 3554
 3555
 3556
 3557
 3558
 3559
 3560
 3561
 3562
 3563
 3564
 3565
 3566
 3567
 3568
 3569
 3570
 3571
 3572
 3573
 3574
 3575
 3576
 3577
 3578
 3579
 3580
 3581
 3582
 3583
 3584
 3585
 3586
 3587
 3588
 3589
 3590
 3591
 3592
 3593
 3594
 3595
 3596
 3597
 3598
 3599
 3600
 3601
 3602
 3603
 3604
 3605
 3606
 3607
 3608
 3609
 3610
 3611
 3612
 3613
 3614
 3615
 3616
 3617
 3618
 3619
 3620
 3621
 3622
 3623
 3624
 3625
 3626
 3627
 3628
 3629
 3630
 3631
 3632
 3633
 3634
 3635
 3636
 3637
 3638
 3639
 3640
 3641
 3642
 3643
 3644
 3645
 3646
 3647
 3648
 3649
 3650
 3651
 3652
 3653
 3654
 3655
 3656
 3657
 3658
 3659
 3660
 3661
 3662
 3663
 3664
 3665
 3666
 3667
 3668
 3669
 3670
 3671
 3672
 3673
 3674
 3675
 3676
 3677
 3678
 3679
 3680
 3681
 3682
 3683
 3684
 3685
 3686
 3687
 3688
 3689
 3690
 3691
 3692
 3693
 3694
 3695
 3696
 3697
 3698
 3699
 3700
 3701
 3702
 3703
 3704
 3705
 3706
 3707
 3708
 3709
 3710
 3711
 3712
 3713
 3714
 3715
 3716
 3717
 3718
 3719
 3720
 3721
 3722
 3723
 3724
 3725
 3726
 3727
 3728
 3729
 3730
 3731
 3732
 3733
 3734
 3735
 3736
 3737
 3738
 3739
 3740
 3741
 3742
 3743
 3744
 3745
 3746
 3747
 3748
 3749
 3750
 3751
 3752
 3753
 3754
 3755
 3756
 3757
 3758
 3759
 3760
 3761
 3762
 3763
 3764
 3765
 3766
 3767
 3768
 3769
 3770
 3771
 3772
 3773
 3774
 3775
 3776
 3777
 3778
 3779
 3780
 3781
 3782
 3783
 3784
 3785
 3786
 3787
 3788
 3789
 3790
 3791
 3792
 3793
 3794
 3795
 3796
 3797
 3798
 3799
 3800
 3801
 3802
 3803
 3804
 3805
 3806
 3807
 3808
 3809
 3810
 3811
 3812
 3813
 3814
 3815
 3816
 3817
 3818
 3819
 3820
 3821
 3822
 3823
 3824
 3825
 3826
 3827
 3828
 3829
 3830
 3831
 3832
 3833
 3834
 3835
 3836
 3837
 3838
 3839
 3840
 3841
 3842
 3843
 3844
 3845
 3846
 3847
 3848
 3849
 3850
 3851
 3852
 3853
 3854
 3855
 3856
 3857
 3858
 3859
 3860
 3861
 3862
 3863
 3864
 3865
 3866
 3867
 3868
 3869
 3870
 3871
 3872
 3873
 3874
 3875
 3876
 3877
 3878
 3879
 3880
 3881
 3882
 3883
 3884
 3885
 3886
 3887
 3888
 3889
 3890
 3891
 3892
 3893
 3894
 3895
 3896
 3897
 3898
 3899
 3900
 3901
 3902
 3903
 3904
 3905
 3906
 3907
 3908
 3909
 3910
 3911
 3912
 3913
 3914
 3915
 3916
 3917
 3918
 3919
 3920
 3921
 3922
 3923
 3924
 3925
 3926
 3927
 3928
 3929
 3930
 3931
 3932
 3933
 3934
 3935
 3936
 3937
 3938
 3939
 3940
 3941
 3942
 3943
 3944
 3945
 3946
 3947
 3948
 3949
 3950
 3951
 3952
 3953
 3954
 3955
 3956
 3957
 3958
 3959
 3960
 3961
 3962
 3963
 3964
 3965
 3966
 3967
 3968
 3969
 3970
 3971
 3972
 3973
 3974
 3975
 3976
 3977
 3978
 3979
 3980
 3981
 3982
 3983
 3984
 3985
 3986
 3987
 3988
 3989
 3990
 3991
 3992
 3993
 3994
 3995
 3996
 3997
 3998
 3999
 4000
 4001
 4002
 4003
 4004
 4005
 4006
 4007
 4008
 4009
 4010
 4011
 4012
 4013
 4014
 4015
 4016
 4017
 4018
 4019
 4020
 4021
 4022
 4023
 4024
 4025
 4026
 4027
 4028
 4029
 4030
 4031
 4032
 4033
 4034
 4035
 4036
 4037
 4038
 4039
 4040
 4041
 4042
 4043
 4044
 4045
 4046
 4047
 4048
 4049
 4050
 4051
 4052
 4053
 4054
 4055
 4056
 4057
 4058
 4059
 4060
 4061
 4062
 4063
 4064
 4065
 4066
 4067
 4068
 4069
 4070
 4071
 4072
 4073
 4074
 4075
 4076
 4077
 4078
 4079
 4080
 4081
 4082
 4083
 4084
 4085
 4086
 4087
 4088
 4089
 4090
 4091
 4092
 4093
 4094
 4095
 4096
 4097
 4098
 4099
 4100
 4101
 4102
 4103
 4104
 4105
 4106
 4107
 4108
 4109
 4110
 4111
 4112
 4113
 4114
 4115
 4116
 4117
 4118
 4119
 4120
 4121
 4122
 4123
 4124
 4125
 4126
========================
LLVM Programmer's Manual
========================

.. contents::
   :local:

.. warning::
   This is always a work in progress.

.. _introduction:

Introduction
============

This document is meant to highlight some of the important classes and interfaces
available in the LLVM source-base.  This manual is not intended to explain what
LLVM is, how it works, and what LLVM code looks like.  It assumes that you know
the basics of LLVM and are interested in writing transformations or otherwise
analyzing or manipulating the code.

This document should get you oriented so that you can find your way in the
continuously growing source code that makes up the LLVM infrastructure.  Note
that this manual is not intended to serve as a replacement for reading the
source code, so if you think there should be a method in one of these classes to
do something, but it's not listed, check the source.  Links to the `doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/>`__ sources are provided to make this as easy as
possible.

The first section of this document describes general information that is useful
to know when working in the LLVM infrastructure, and the second describes the
Core LLVM classes.  In the future this manual will be extended with information
describing how to use extension libraries, such as dominator information, CFG
traversal routines, and useful utilities like the ``InstVisitor`` (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/InstVisitor_8h_source.html>`__) template.

.. _general:

General Information
===================

This section contains general information that is useful if you are working in
the LLVM source-base, but that isn't specific to any particular API.

.. _stl:

The C++ Standard Template Library
---------------------------------

LLVM makes heavy use of the C++ Standard Template Library (STL), perhaps much
more than you are used to, or have seen before.  Because of this, you might want
to do a little background reading in the techniques used and capabilities of the
library.  There are many good pages that discuss the STL, and several books on
the subject that you can get, so it will not be discussed in this document.

Here are some useful links:

#. `cppreference.com
   <http://en.cppreference.com/w/>`_ - an excellent
   reference for the STL and other parts of the standard C++ library.

#. `C++ In a Nutshell <http://www.tempest-sw.com/cpp/>`_ - This is an O'Reilly
   book in the making.  It has a decent Standard Library Reference that rivals
   Dinkumware's, and is unfortunately no longer free since the book has been
   published.

#. `C++ Frequently Asked Questions <http://www.parashift.com/c++-faq-lite/>`_.

#. `SGI's STL Programmer's Guide <http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/>`_ - Contains a
   useful `Introduction to the STL
   <http://www.sgi.com/tech/stl/stl_introduction.html>`_.

#. `Bjarne Stroustrup's C++ Page
   <http://www.research.att.com/%7Ebs/C++.html>`_.

#. `Bruce Eckel's Thinking in C++, 2nd ed. Volume 2 Revision 4.0
   (even better, get the book)
   <http://www.mindview.net/Books/TICPP/ThinkingInCPP2e.html>`_.

You are also encouraged to take a look at the :doc:`LLVM Coding Standards
<CodingStandards>` guide which focuses on how to write maintainable code more
than where to put your curly braces.

.. _resources:

Other useful references
-----------------------

#. `Using static and shared libraries across platforms
   <http://www.fortran-2000.com/ArnaudRecipes/sharedlib.html>`_

.. _apis:

Important and useful LLVM APIs
==============================

Here we highlight some LLVM APIs that are generally useful and good to know
about when writing transformations.

.. _isa:

The ``isa<>``, ``cast<>`` and ``dyn_cast<>`` templates
------------------------------------------------------

The LLVM source-base makes extensive use of a custom form of RTTI.  These
templates have many similarities to the C++ ``dynamic_cast<>`` operator, but
they don't have some drawbacks (primarily stemming from the fact that
``dynamic_cast<>`` only works on classes that have a v-table).  Because they are
used so often, you must know what they do and how they work.  All of these
templates are defined in the ``llvm/Support/Casting.h`` (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/Casting_8h_source.html>`__) file (note that you very
rarely have to include this file directly).

``isa<>``:
  The ``isa<>`` operator works exactly like the Java "``instanceof``" operator.
  It returns true or false depending on whether a reference or pointer points to
  an instance of the specified class.  This can be very useful for constraint
  checking of various sorts (example below).

``cast<>``:
  The ``cast<>`` operator is a "checked cast" operation.  It converts a pointer
  or reference from a base class to a derived class, causing an assertion
  failure if it is not really an instance of the right type.  This should be
  used in cases where you have some information that makes you believe that
  something is of the right type.  An example of the ``isa<>`` and ``cast<>``
  template is:

  .. code-block:: c++

    static bool isLoopInvariant(const Value *V, const Loop *L) {
      if (isa<Constant>(V) || isa<Argument>(V) || isa<GlobalValue>(V))
        return true;

      // Otherwise, it must be an instruction...
      return !L->contains(cast<Instruction>(V)->getParent());
    }

  Note that you should **not** use an ``isa<>`` test followed by a ``cast<>``,
  for that use the ``dyn_cast<>`` operator.

``dyn_cast<>``:
  The ``dyn_cast<>`` operator is a "checking cast" operation.  It checks to see
  if the operand is of the specified type, and if so, returns a pointer to it
  (this operator does not work with references).  If the operand is not of the
  correct type, a null pointer is returned.  Thus, this works very much like
  the ``dynamic_cast<>`` operator in C++, and should be used in the same
  circumstances.  Typically, the ``dyn_cast<>`` operator is used in an ``if``
  statement or some other flow control statement like this:

  .. code-block:: c++

    if (auto *AI = dyn_cast<AllocationInst>(Val)) {
      // ...
    }

  This form of the ``if`` statement effectively combines together a call to
  ``isa<>`` and a call to ``cast<>`` into one statement, which is very
  convenient.

  Note that the ``dyn_cast<>`` operator, like C++'s ``dynamic_cast<>`` or Java's
  ``instanceof`` operator, can be abused.  In particular, you should not use big
  chained ``if/then/else`` blocks to check for lots of different variants of
  classes.  If you find yourself wanting to do this, it is much cleaner and more
  efficient to use the ``InstVisitor`` class to dispatch over the instruction
  type directly.

``cast_or_null<>``:
  The ``cast_or_null<>`` operator works just like the ``cast<>`` operator,
  except that it allows for a null pointer as an argument (which it then
  propagates).  This can sometimes be useful, allowing you to combine several
  null checks into one.

``dyn_cast_or_null<>``:
  The ``dyn_cast_or_null<>`` operator works just like the ``dyn_cast<>``
  operator, except that it allows for a null pointer as an argument (which it
  then propagates).  This can sometimes be useful, allowing you to combine
  several null checks into one.

These five templates can be used with any classes, whether they have a v-table
or not.  If you want to add support for these templates, see the document
:doc:`How to set up LLVM-style RTTI for your class hierarchy
<HowToSetUpLLVMStyleRTTI>`

.. _string_apis:

Passing strings (the ``StringRef`` and ``Twine`` classes)
---------------------------------------------------------

Although LLVM generally does not do much string manipulation, we do have several
important APIs which take strings.  Two important examples are the Value class
-- which has names for instructions, functions, etc. -- and the ``StringMap``
class which is used extensively in LLVM and Clang.

These are generic classes, and they need to be able to accept strings which may
have embedded null characters.  Therefore, they cannot simply take a ``const
char *``, and taking a ``const std::string&`` requires clients to perform a heap
allocation which is usually unnecessary.  Instead, many LLVM APIs use a
``StringRef`` or a ``const Twine&`` for passing strings efficiently.

.. _StringRef:

The ``StringRef`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The ``StringRef`` data type represents a reference to a constant string (a
character array and a length) and supports the common operations available on
``std::string``, but does not require heap allocation.

It can be implicitly constructed using a C style null-terminated string, an
``std::string``, or explicitly with a character pointer and length.  For
example, the ``StringRef`` find function is declared as:

.. code-block:: c++

  iterator find(StringRef Key);

and clients can call it using any one of:

.. code-block:: c++

  Map.find("foo");                 // Lookup "foo"
  Map.find(std::string("bar"));    // Lookup "bar"
  Map.find(StringRef("\0baz", 4)); // Lookup "\0baz"

Similarly, APIs which need to return a string may return a ``StringRef``
instance, which can be used directly or converted to an ``std::string`` using
the ``str`` member function.  See ``llvm/ADT/StringRef.h`` (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/StringRef_8h_source.html>`__) for more
information.

You should rarely use the ``StringRef`` class directly, because it contains
pointers to external memory it is not generally safe to store an instance of the
class (unless you know that the external storage will not be freed).
``StringRef`` is small and pervasive enough in LLVM that it should always be
passed by value.

The ``Twine`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The ``Twine`` (`doxygen <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Twine.html>`__)
class is an efficient way for APIs to accept concatenated strings.  For example,
a common LLVM paradigm is to name one instruction based on the name of another
instruction with a suffix, for example:

.. code-block:: c++

    New = CmpInst::Create(..., SO->getName() + ".cmp");

The ``Twine`` class is effectively a lightweight `rope
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rope_(computer_science)>`_ which points to
temporary (stack allocated) objects.  Twines can be implicitly constructed as
the result of the plus operator applied to strings (i.e., a C strings, an
``std::string``, or a ``StringRef``).  The twine delays the actual concatenation
of strings until it is actually required, at which point it can be efficiently
rendered directly into a character array.  This avoids unnecessary heap
allocation involved in constructing the temporary results of string
concatenation.  See ``llvm/ADT/Twine.h`` (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/Twine_8h_source.html>`__) and :ref:`here <dss_twine>`
for more information.

As with a ``StringRef``, ``Twine`` objects point to external memory and should
almost never be stored or mentioned directly.  They are intended solely for use
when defining a function which should be able to efficiently accept concatenated
strings.

.. _formatting_strings:

Formatting strings (the ``formatv`` function)
---------------------------------------------
While LLVM doesn't necessarily do a lot of string manipulation and parsing, it
does do a lot of string formatting.  From diagnostic messages, to llvm tool
outputs such as ``llvm-readobj`` to printing verbose disassembly listings and
LLDB runtime logging, the need for string formatting is pervasive.

The ``formatv`` is similar in spirit to ``printf``, but uses a different syntax
which borrows heavily from Python and C#.  Unlike ``printf`` it deduces the type
to be formatted at compile time, so it does not need a format specifier such as
``%d``.  This reduces the mental overhead of trying to construct portable format
strings, especially for platform-specific types like ``size_t`` or pointer types.
Unlike both ``printf`` and Python, it additionally fails to compile if LLVM does
not know how to format the type.  These two properties ensure that the function
is both safer and simpler to use than traditional formatting methods such as 
the ``printf`` family of functions.

Simple formatting
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

A call to ``formatv`` involves a single **format string** consisting of 0 or more
**replacement sequences**, followed by a variable length list of **replacement values**.
A replacement sequence is a string of the form ``{N[[,align]:style]}``.

``N`` refers to the 0-based index of the argument from the list of replacement
values.  Note that this means it is possible to reference the same parameter
multiple times, possibly with different style and/or alignment options, in any order.

``align`` is an optional string specifying the width of the field to format
the value into, and the alignment of the value within the field.  It is specified as
an optional **alignment style** followed by a positive integral **field width**.  The
alignment style can be one of the characters ``-`` (left align), ``=`` (center align),
or ``+`` (right align).  The default is right aligned.  

``style`` is an optional string consisting of a type specific that controls the
formatting of the value.  For example, to format a floating point value as a percentage,
you can use the style option ``P``.

Custom formatting
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

There are two ways to customize the formatting behavior for a type.

1. Provide a template specialization of ``llvm::format_provider<T>`` for your
   type ``T`` with the appropriate static format method.

  .. code-block:: c++
  
    namespace llvm {
      template<>
      struct format_provider<MyFooBar> {
        static void format(const MyFooBar &V, raw_ostream &Stream, StringRef Style) {
          // Do whatever is necessary to format `V` into `Stream`
        }
      };
      void foo() {
        MyFooBar X;
        std::string S = formatv("{0}", X);
      }
    }
    
  This is a useful extensibility mechanism for adding support for formatting your own
  custom types with your own custom Style options.  But it does not help when you want
  to extend the mechanism for formatting a type that the library already knows how to
  format.  For that, we need something else.
    
2. Provide a **format adapter** inheriting from ``llvm::FormatAdapter<T>``.

  .. code-block:: c++
  
    namespace anything {
      struct format_int_custom : public llvm::FormatAdapter<int> {
        explicit format_int_custom(int N) : llvm::FormatAdapter<int>(N) {}
        void format(llvm::raw_ostream &Stream, StringRef Style) override {
          // Do whatever is necessary to format ``this->Item`` into ``Stream``
        }
      };
    }
    namespace llvm {
      void foo() {
        std::string S = formatv("{0}", anything::format_int_custom(42));
      }
    }
    
  If the type is detected to be derived from ``FormatAdapter<T>``, ``formatv``
  will call the
  ``format`` method on the argument passing in the specified style.  This allows
  one to provide custom formatting of any type, including one which already has
  a builtin format provider.

``formatv`` Examples
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Below is intended to provide an incomplete set of examples demonstrating
the usage of ``formatv``.  More information can be found by reading the
doxygen documentation or by looking at the unit test suite.


.. code-block:: c++
  
  std::string S;
  // Simple formatting of basic types and implicit string conversion.
  S = formatv("{0} ({1:P})", 7, 0.35);  // S == "7 (35.00%)"
  
  // Out-of-order referencing and multi-referencing
  outs() << formatv("{0} {2} {1} {0}", 1, "test", 3); // prints "1 3 test 1"
  
  // Left, right, and center alignment
  S = formatv("{0,7}",  'a');  // S == "      a";
  S = formatv("{0,-7}", 'a');  // S == "a      ";
  S = formatv("{0,=7}", 'a');  // S == "   a   ";
  S = formatv("{0,+7}", 'a');  // S == "      a";
  
  // Custom styles
  S = formatv("{0:N} - {0:x} - {1:E}", 12345, 123908342); // S == "12,345 - 0x3039 - 1.24E8"
  
  // Adapters
  S = formatv("{0}", fmt_align(42, AlignStyle::Center, 7));  // S == "  42   "
  S = formatv("{0}", fmt_repeat("hi", 3)); // S == "hihihi"
  S = formatv("{0}", fmt_pad("hi", 2, 6)); // S == "  hi      "
  
  // Ranges
  std::vector<int> V = {8, 9, 10};
  S = formatv("{0}", make_range(V.begin(), V.end())); // S == "8, 9, 10"
  S = formatv("{0:$[+]}", make_range(V.begin(), V.end())); // S == "8+9+10"
  S = formatv("{0:$[ + ]@[x]}", make_range(V.begin(), V.end())); // S == "0x8 + 0x9 + 0xA"

.. _error_apis:

Error handling
--------------

Proper error handling helps us identify bugs in our code, and helps end-users
understand errors in their tool usage. Errors fall into two broad categories:
*programmatic* and *recoverable*, with different strategies for handling and
reporting.

Programmatic Errors
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Programmatic errors are violations of program invariants or API contracts, and
represent bugs within the program itself. Our aim is to document invariants, and
to abort quickly at the point of failure (providing some basic diagnostic) when
invariants are broken at runtime.

The fundamental tools for handling programmatic errors are assertions and the
llvm_unreachable function. Assertions are used to express invariant conditions,
and should include a message describing the invariant:

.. code-block:: c++

  assert(isPhysReg(R) && "All virt regs should have been allocated already.");

The llvm_unreachable function can be used to document areas of control flow
that should never be entered if the program invariants hold:

.. code-block:: c++

  enum { Foo, Bar, Baz } X = foo();

  switch (X) {
    case Foo: /* Handle Foo */; break;
    case Bar: /* Handle Bar */; break;
    default:
      llvm_unreachable("X should be Foo or Bar here");
  }

Recoverable Errors
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Recoverable errors represent an error in the program's environment, for example
a resource failure (a missing file, a dropped network connection, etc.), or
malformed input. These errors should be detected and communicated to a level of
the program where they can be handled appropriately. Handling the error may be
as simple as reporting the issue to the user, or it may involve attempts at
recovery.

.. note::

   While it would be ideal to use this error handling scheme throughout
   LLVM, there are places where this hasn't been practical to apply. In
   situations where you absolutely must emit a non-programmatic error and
   the ``Error`` model isn't workable you can call ``report_fatal_error``,
   which will call installed error handlers, print a message, and exit the
   program.

Recoverable errors are modeled using LLVM's ``Error`` scheme. This scheme
represents errors using function return values, similar to classic C integer
error codes, or C++'s ``std::error_code``. However, the ``Error`` class is
actually a lightweight wrapper for user-defined error types, allowing arbitrary
information to be attached to describe the error. This is similar to the way C++
exceptions allow throwing of user-defined types.

Success values are created by calling ``Error::success()``, E.g.:

.. code-block:: c++

  Error foo() {
    // Do something.
    // Return success.
    return Error::success();
  }

Success values are very cheap to construct and return - they have minimal
impact on program performance.

Failure values are constructed using ``make_error<T>``, where ``T`` is any class
that inherits from the ErrorInfo utility, E.g.:

.. code-block:: c++

  class BadFileFormat : public ErrorInfo<BadFileFormat> {
  public:
    static char ID;
    std::string Path;

    BadFileFormat(StringRef Path) : Path(Path.str()) {}

    void log(raw_ostream &OS) const override {
      OS << Path << " is malformed";
    }

    std::error_code convertToErrorCode() const override {
      return make_error_code(object_error::parse_failed);
    }
  };

  char BadFileFormat::ID; // This should be declared in the C++ file.

  Error printFormattedFile(StringRef Path) {
    if (<check for valid format>)
      return make_error<InvalidObjectFile>(Path);
    // print file contents.
    return Error::success();
  }

Error values can be implicitly converted to bool: true for error, false for
success, enabling the following idiom:

.. code-block:: c++

  Error mayFail();

  Error foo() {
    if (auto Err = mayFail())
      return Err;
    // Success! We can proceed.
    ...

For functions that can fail but need to return a value the ``Expected<T>``
utility can be used. Values of this type can be constructed with either a
``T``, or an ``Error``. Expected<T> values are also implicitly convertible to
boolean, but with the opposite convention to ``Error``: true for success, false
for error. If success, the ``T`` value can be accessed via the dereference
operator. If failure, the ``Error`` value can be extracted using the
``takeError()`` method. Idiomatic usage looks like:

.. code-block:: c++

  Expected<FormattedFile> openFormattedFile(StringRef Path) {
    // If badly formatted, return an error.
    if (auto Err = checkFormat(Path))
      return std::move(Err);
    // Otherwise return a FormattedFile instance.
    return FormattedFile(Path);
  }

  Error processFormattedFile(StringRef Path) {
    // Try to open a formatted file
    if (auto FileOrErr = openFormattedFile(Path)) {
      // On success, grab a reference to the file and continue.
      auto &File = *FileOrErr;
      ...
    } else
      // On error, extract the Error value and return it.
      return FileOrErr.takeError();
  }

If an ``Expected<T>`` value is in success mode then the ``takeError()`` method
will return a success value. Using this fact, the above function can be
rewritten as:

.. code-block:: c++

  Error processFormattedFile(StringRef Path) {
    // Try to open a formatted file
    auto FileOrErr = openFormattedFile(Path);
    if (auto Err = FileOrErr.takeError())
      // On error, extract the Error value and return it.
      return Err;
    // On success, grab a reference to the file and continue.
    auto &File = *FileOrErr;
    ...
  }

This second form is often more readable for functions that involve multiple
``Expected<T>`` values as it limits the indentation required.

All ``Error`` instances, whether success or failure, must be either checked or
moved from (via ``std::move`` or a return) before they are destructed.
Accidentally discarding an unchecked error will cause a program abort at the
point where the unchecked value's destructor is run, making it easy to identify
and fix violations of this rule.

Success values are considered checked once they have been tested (by invoking
the boolean conversion operator):

.. code-block:: c++

  if (auto Err = mayFail(...))
    return Err; // Failure value - move error to caller.

  // Safe to continue: Err was checked.

In contrast, the following code will always cause an abort, even if ``mayFail``
returns a success value:

.. code-block:: c++

    mayFail();
    // Program will always abort here, even if mayFail() returns Success, since
    // the value is not checked.

Failure values are considered checked once a handler for the error type has
been activated:

.. code-block:: c++

  handleErrors(
    processFormattedFile(...),
    [](const BadFileFormat &BFF) {
      report("Unable to process " + BFF.Path + ": bad format");
    },
    [](const FileNotFound &FNF) {
      report("File not found " + FNF.Path);
    });

The ``handleErrors`` function takes an error as its first argument, followed by
a variadic list of "handlers", each of which must be a callable type (a
function, lambda, or class with a call operator) with one argument. The
``handleErrors`` function will visit each handler in the sequence and check its
argument type against the dynamic type of the error, running the first handler
that matches. This is the same decision process that is used decide which catch
clause to run for a C++ exception.

Since the list of handlers passed to ``handleErrors`` may not cover every error
type that can occur, the ``handleErrors`` function also returns an Error value
that must be checked or propagated. If the error value that is passed to
``handleErrors`` does not match any of the handlers it will be returned from
handleErrors. Idiomatic use of ``handleErrors`` thus looks like:

.. code-block:: c++

  if (auto Err =
        handleErrors(
          processFormattedFile(...),
          [](const BadFileFormat &BFF) {
            report("Unable to process " + BFF.Path + ": bad format");
          },
          [](const FileNotFound &FNF) {
            report("File not found " + FNF.Path);
          }))
    return Err;

In cases where you truly know that the handler list is exhaustive the
``handleAllErrors`` function can be used instead. This is identical to
``handleErrors`` except that it will terminate the program if an unhandled
error is passed in, and can therefore return void. The ``handleAllErrors``
function should generally be avoided: the introduction of a new error type
elsewhere in the program can easily turn a formerly exhaustive list of errors
into a non-exhaustive list, risking unexpected program termination. Where
possible, use handleErrors and propagate unknown errors up the stack instead.

For tool code, where errors can be handled by printing an error message then
exiting with an error code, the :ref:`ExitOnError <err_exitonerr>` utility
may be a better choice than handleErrors, as it simplifies control flow when
calling fallible functions.

In situations where it is known that a particular call to a fallible function
will always succeed (for example, a call to a function that can only fail on a
subset of inputs with an input that is known to be safe) the
:ref:`cantFail <err_cantfail>` functions can be used to remove the error type,
simplifying control flow.

StringError
"""""""""""

Many kinds of errors have no recovery strategy, the only action that can be
taken is to report them to the user so that the user can attempt to fix the
environment. In this case representing the error as a string makes perfect
sense. LLVM provides the ``StringError`` class for this purpose. It takes two
arguments: A string error message, and an equivalent ``std::error_code`` for
interoperability:

.. code-block:: c++

  make_error<StringError>("Bad executable",
                          make_error_code(errc::executable_format_error"));

If you're certain that the error you're building will never need to be converted
to a ``std::error_code`` you can use the ``inconvertibleErrorCode()`` function:

.. code-block:: c++

  make_error<StringError>("Bad executable", inconvertibleErrorCode());

This should be done only after careful consideration. If any attempt is made to
convert this error to a ``std::error_code`` it will trigger immediate program
termination. Unless you are certain that your errors will not need
interoperability you should look for an existing ``std::error_code`` that you
can convert to, and even (as painful as it is) consider introducing a new one as
a stopgap measure.

Interoperability with std::error_code and ErrorOr
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

Many existing LLVM APIs use ``std::error_code`` and its partner ``ErrorOr<T>``
(which plays the same role as ``Expected<T>``, but wraps a ``std::error_code``
rather than an ``Error``). The infectious nature of error types means that an
attempt to change one of these functions to return ``Error`` or ``Expected<T>``
instead often results in an avalanche of changes to callers, callers of callers,
and so on. (The first such attempt, returning an ``Error`` from
MachOObjectFile's constructor, was abandoned after the diff reached 3000 lines,
impacted half a dozen libraries, and was still growing).

To solve this problem, the ``Error``/``std::error_code`` interoperability requirement was
introduced. Two pairs of functions allow any ``Error`` value to be converted to a
``std::error_code``, any ``Expected<T>`` to be converted to an ``ErrorOr<T>``, and vice
versa:

.. code-block:: c++

  std::error_code errorToErrorCode(Error Err);
  Error errorCodeToError(std::error_code EC);

  template <typename T> ErrorOr<T> expectedToErrorOr(Expected<T> TOrErr);
  template <typename T> Expected<T> errorOrToExpected(ErrorOr<T> TOrEC);


Using these APIs it is easy to make surgical patches that update individual
functions from ``std::error_code`` to ``Error``, and from ``ErrorOr<T>`` to
``Expected<T>``.

Returning Errors from error handlers
""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

Error recovery attempts may themselves fail. For that reason, ``handleErrors``
actually recognises three different forms of handler signature:

.. code-block:: c++

  // Error must be handled, no new errors produced:
  void(UserDefinedError &E);

  // Error must be handled, new errors can be produced:
  Error(UserDefinedError &E);

  // Original error can be inspected, then re-wrapped and returned (or a new
  // error can be produced):
  Error(std::unique_ptr<UserDefinedError> E);

Any error returned from a handler will be returned from the ``handleErrors``
function so that it can be handled itself, or propagated up the stack.

.. _err_exitonerr:

Using ExitOnError to simplify tool code
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

Library code should never call ``exit`` for a recoverable error, however in tool
code (especially command line tools) this can be a reasonable approach. Calling
``exit`` upon encountering an error dramatically simplifies control flow as the
error no longer needs to be propagated up the stack. This allows code to be
written in straight-line style, as long as each fallible call is wrapped in a
check and call to exit. The ``ExitOnError`` class supports this pattern by
providing call operators that inspect ``Error`` values, stripping the error away
in the success case and logging to ``stderr`` then exiting in the failure case.

To use this class, declare a global ``ExitOnError`` variable in your program:

.. code-block:: c++

  ExitOnError ExitOnErr;

Calls to fallible functions can then be wrapped with a call to ``ExitOnErr``,
turning them into non-failing calls:

.. code-block:: c++

  Error mayFail();
  Expected<int> mayFail2();

  void foo() {
    ExitOnErr(mayFail());
    int X = ExitOnErr(mayFail2());
  }

On failure, the error's log message will be written to ``stderr``, optionally
preceded by a string "banner" that can be set by calling the setBanner method. A
mapping can also be supplied from ``Error`` values to exit codes using the
``setExitCodeMapper`` method:

.. code-block:: c++

  int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
    ExitOnErr.setBanner(std::string(argv[0]) + " error:");
    ExitOnErr.setExitCodeMapper(
      [](const Error &Err) {
        if (Err.isA<BadFileFormat>())
          return 2;
        return 1;
      });

Use ``ExitOnError`` in your tool code where possible as it can greatly improve
readability.

.. _err_cantfail:

Using cantFail to simplify safe callsites
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

Some functions may only fail for a subset of their inputs, so calls using known
safe inputs can be assumed to succeed.

The cantFail functions encapsulate this by wrapping an assertion that their
argument is a success value and, in the case of Expected<T>, unwrapping the
T value:

.. code-block:: c++

  Error onlyFailsForSomeXValues(int X);
  Expected<int> onlyFailsForSomeXValues2(int X);

  void foo() {
    cantFail(onlyFailsForSomeXValues(KnownSafeValue));
    int Y = cantFail(onlyFailsForSomeXValues2(KnownSafeValue));
    ...
  }

Like the ExitOnError utility, cantFail simplifies control flow. Their treatment
of error cases is very different however: Where ExitOnError is guaranteed to
terminate the program on an error input, cantFile simply asserts that the result
is success. In debug builds this will result in an assertion failure if an error
is encountered. In release builds the behavior of cantFail for failure values is
undefined. As such, care must be taken in the use of cantFail: clients must be
certain that a cantFail wrapped call really can not fail with the given
arguments.

Use of the cantFail functions should be rare in library code, but they are
likely to be of more use in tool and unit-test code where inputs and/or
mocked-up classes or functions may be known to be safe.

Fallible constructors
"""""""""""""""""""""

Some classes require resource acquisition or other complex initialization that
can fail during construction. Unfortunately constructors can't return errors,
and having clients test objects after they're constructed to ensure that they're
valid is error prone as it's all too easy to forget the test. To work around
this, use the named constructor idiom and return an ``Expected<T>``:

.. code-block:: c++

  class Foo {
  public:

    static Expected<Foo> Create(Resource R1, Resource R2) {
      Error Err;
      Foo F(R1, R2, Err);
      if (Err)
        return std::move(Err);
      return std::move(F);
    }

  private:

    Foo(Resource R1, Resource R2, Error &Err) {
      ErrorAsOutParameter EAO(&Err);
      if (auto Err2 = R1.acquire()) {
        Err = std::move(Err2);
        return;
      }
      Err = R2.acquire();
    }
  };


Here, the named constructor passes an ``Error`` by reference into the actual
constructor, which the constructor can then use to return errors. The
``ErrorAsOutParameter`` utility sets the ``Error`` value's checked flag on entry
to the constructor so that the error can be assigned to, then resets it on exit
to force the client (the named constructor) to check the error.

By using this idiom, clients attempting to construct a Foo receive either a
well-formed Foo or an Error, never an object in an invalid state.

Propagating and consuming errors based on types
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

In some contexts, certain types of error are known to be benign. For example,
when walking an archive, some clients may be happy to skip over badly formatted
object files rather than terminating the walk immediately. Skipping badly
formatted objects could be achieved using an elaborate handler method, but the
Error.h header provides two utilities that make this idiom much cleaner: the
type inspection method, ``isA``, and the ``consumeError`` function:

.. code-block:: c++

  Error walkArchive(Archive A) {
    for (unsigned I = 0; I != A.numMembers(); ++I) {
      auto ChildOrErr = A.getMember(I);
      if (auto Err = ChildOrErr.takeError()) {
        if (Err.isA<BadFileFormat>())
          consumeError(std::move(Err))
        else
          return Err;
      }
      auto &Child = *ChildOrErr;
      // Use Child
      ...
    }
    return Error::success();
  }

Concatenating Errors with joinErrors
""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

In the archive walking example above ``BadFileFormat`` errors are simply
consumed and ignored. If the client had wanted report these errors after
completing the walk over the archive they could use the ``joinErrors`` utility:

.. code-block:: c++

  Error walkArchive(Archive A) {
    Error DeferredErrs = Error::success();
    for (unsigned I = 0; I != A.numMembers(); ++I) {
      auto ChildOrErr = A.getMember(I);
      if (auto Err = ChildOrErr.takeError())
        if (Err.isA<BadFileFormat>())
          DeferredErrs = joinErrors(std::move(DeferredErrs), std::move(Err));
        else
          return Err;
      auto &Child = *ChildOrErr;
      // Use Child
      ...
    }
    return DeferredErrs;
  }

The ``joinErrors`` routine builds a special error type called ``ErrorList``,
which holds a list of user defined errors. The ``handleErrors`` routine
recognizes this type and will attempt to handle each of the contained errors in
order. If all contained errors can be handled, ``handleErrors`` will return
``Error::success()``, otherwise ``handleErrors`` will concatenate the remaining
errors and return the resulting ``ErrorList``.

Building fallible iterators and iterator ranges
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

The archive walking examples above retrieve archive members by index, however
this requires considerable boiler-plate for iteration and error checking. We can
clean this up by using ``Error`` with the "fallible iterator" pattern. The usual
C++ iterator patterns do not allow for failure on increment, but we can
incorporate support for it by having iterators hold an Error reference through
which they can report failure. In this pattern, if an increment operation fails
the failure is recorded via the Error reference and the iterator value is set to
the end of the range in order to terminate the loop. This ensures that the
dereference operation is safe anywhere that an ordinary iterator dereference
would be safe (i.e. when the iterator is not equal to end). Where this pattern
is followed (as in the ``llvm::object::Archive`` class) the result is much
cleaner iteration idiom:

.. code-block:: c++

  Error Err;
  for (auto &Child : Ar->children(Err)) {
    // Use Child - we only enter the loop when it's valid
    ...
  }
  // Check Err after the loop to ensure it didn't break due to an error.
  if (Err)
    return Err;

.. _function_apis:

More information on Error and its related utilities can be found in the
Error.h header file.

Passing functions and other callable objects
--------------------------------------------

Sometimes you may want a function to be passed a callback object. In order to
support lambda expressions and other function objects, you should not use the
traditional C approach of taking a function pointer and an opaque cookie:

.. code-block:: c++

    void takeCallback(bool (*Callback)(Function *, void *), void *Cookie);

Instead, use one of the following approaches:

Function template
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

If you don't mind putting the definition of your function into a header file,
make it a function template that is templated on the callable type.

.. code-block:: c++

    template<typename Callable>
    void takeCallback(Callable Callback) {
      Callback(1, 2, 3);
    }

The ``function_ref`` class template
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The ``function_ref``
(`doxygen <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1function__ref_3_01Ret_07Params_8_8_8_08_4.html>`__) class
template represents a reference to a callable object, templated over the type
of the callable. This is a good choice for passing a callback to a function,
if you don't need to hold onto the callback after the function returns. In this
way, ``function_ref`` is to ``std::function`` as ``StringRef`` is to
``std::string``.

``function_ref<Ret(Param1, Param2, ...)>`` can be implicitly constructed from
any callable object that can be called with arguments of type ``Param1``,
``Param2``, ..., and returns a value that can be converted to type ``Ret``.
For example:

.. code-block:: c++

    void visitBasicBlocks(Function *F, function_ref<bool (BasicBlock*)> Callback) {
      for (BasicBlock &BB : *F)
        if (Callback(&BB))
          return;
    }

can be called using:

.. code-block:: c++

    visitBasicBlocks(F, [&](BasicBlock *BB) {
      if (process(BB))
        return isEmpty(BB);
      return false;
    });

Note that a ``function_ref`` object contains pointers to external memory, so it
is not generally safe to store an instance of the class (unless you know that
the external storage will not be freed). If you need this ability, consider
using ``std::function``. ``function_ref`` is small enough that it should always
be passed by value.

.. _DEBUG:

The ``DEBUG()`` macro and ``-debug`` option
-------------------------------------------

Often when working on your pass you will put a bunch of debugging printouts and
other code into your pass.  After you get it working, you want to remove it, but
you may need it again in the future (to work out new bugs that you run across).

Naturally, because of this, you don't want to delete the debug printouts, but
you don't want them to always be noisy.  A standard compromise is to comment
them out, allowing you to enable them if you need them in the future.

The ``llvm/Support/Debug.h`` (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/Debug_8h_source.html>`__) file provides a macro named
``DEBUG()`` that is a much nicer solution to this problem.  Basically, you can
put arbitrary code into the argument of the ``DEBUG`` macro, and it is only
executed if '``opt``' (or any other tool) is run with the '``-debug``' command
line argument:

.. code-block:: c++

  DEBUG(errs() << "I am here!\n");

Then you can run your pass like this:

.. code-block:: none

  $ opt < a.bc > /dev/null -mypass
  <no output>
  $ opt < a.bc > /dev/null -mypass -debug
  I am here!

Using the ``DEBUG()`` macro instead of a home-brewed solution allows you to not
have to create "yet another" command line option for the debug output for your
pass.  Note that ``DEBUG()`` macros are disabled for non-asserts builds, so they
do not cause a performance impact at all (for the same reason, they should also
not contain side-effects!).

One additional nice thing about the ``DEBUG()`` macro is that you can enable or
disable it directly in gdb.  Just use "``set DebugFlag=0``" or "``set
DebugFlag=1``" from the gdb if the program is running.  If the program hasn't
been started yet, you can always just run it with ``-debug``.

.. _DEBUG_TYPE:

Fine grained debug info with ``DEBUG_TYPE`` and the ``-debug-only`` option
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Sometimes you may find yourself in a situation where enabling ``-debug`` just
turns on **too much** information (such as when working on the code generator).
If you want to enable debug information with more fine-grained control, you
should define the ``DEBUG_TYPE`` macro and use the ``-debug-only`` option as
follows:

.. code-block:: c++

  #define DEBUG_TYPE "foo"
  DEBUG(errs() << "'foo' debug type\n");
  #undef  DEBUG_TYPE
  #define DEBUG_TYPE "bar"
  DEBUG(errs() << "'bar' debug type\n"));
  #undef  DEBUG_TYPE

Then you can run your pass like this:

.. code-block:: none

  $ opt < a.bc > /dev/null -mypass
  <no output>
  $ opt < a.bc > /dev/null -mypass -debug
  'foo' debug type
  'bar' debug type
  $ opt < a.bc > /dev/null -mypass -debug-only=foo
  'foo' debug type
  $ opt < a.bc > /dev/null -mypass -debug-only=bar
  'bar' debug type
  $ opt < a.bc > /dev/null -mypass -debug-only=foo,bar
  'foo' debug type
  'bar' debug type

Of course, in practice, you should only set ``DEBUG_TYPE`` at the top of a file,
to specify the debug type for the entire module. Be careful that you only do
this after including Debug.h and not around any #include of headers. Also, you
should use names more meaningful than "foo" and "bar", because there is no
system in place to ensure that names do not conflict. If two different modules
use the same string, they will all be turned on when the name is specified.
This allows, for example, all debug information for instruction scheduling to be
enabled with ``-debug-only=InstrSched``, even if the source lives in multiple
files. The name must not include a comma (,) as that is used to separate the
arguments of the ``-debug-only`` option.

For performance reasons, -debug-only is not available in optimized build
(``--enable-optimized``) of LLVM.

The ``DEBUG_WITH_TYPE`` macro is also available for situations where you would
like to set ``DEBUG_TYPE``, but only for one specific ``DEBUG`` statement.  It
takes an additional first parameter, which is the type to use.  For example, the
preceding example could be written as:

.. code-block:: c++

  DEBUG_WITH_TYPE("foo", errs() << "'foo' debug type\n");
  DEBUG_WITH_TYPE("bar", errs() << "'bar' debug type\n"));

.. _Statistic:

The ``Statistic`` class & ``-stats`` option
-------------------------------------------

The ``llvm/ADT/Statistic.h`` (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/Statistic_8h_source.html>`__) file provides a class
named ``Statistic`` that is used as a unified way to keep track of what the LLVM
compiler is doing and how effective various optimizations are.  It is useful to
see what optimizations are contributing to making a particular program run
faster.

Often you may run your pass on some big program, and you're interested to see
how many times it makes a certain transformation.  Although you can do this with
hand inspection, or some ad-hoc method, this is a real pain and not very useful
for big programs.  Using the ``Statistic`` class makes it very easy to keep
track of this information, and the calculated information is presented in a
uniform manner with the rest of the passes being executed.

There are many examples of ``Statistic`` uses, but the basics of using it are as
follows:

Define your statistic like this:

.. code-block:: c++

  #define DEBUG_TYPE "mypassname"   // This goes before any #includes.
  STATISTIC(NumXForms, "The # of times I did stuff");

The ``STATISTIC`` macro defines a static variable, whose name is specified by
the first argument.  The pass name is taken from the ``DEBUG_TYPE`` macro, and
the description is taken from the second argument.  The variable defined
("NumXForms" in this case) acts like an unsigned integer.

Whenever you make a transformation, bump the counter:

.. code-block:: c++

  ++NumXForms;   // I did stuff!

That's all you have to do.  To get '``opt``' to print out the statistics
gathered, use the '``-stats``' option:

.. code-block:: none

  $ opt -stats -mypassname < program.bc > /dev/null
  ... statistics output ...

Note that in order to use the '``-stats``' option, LLVM must be
compiled with assertions enabled.

When running ``opt`` on a C file from the SPEC benchmark suite, it gives a
report that looks like this:

.. code-block:: none

   7646 bitcodewriter   - Number of normal instructions
    725 bitcodewriter   - Number of oversized instructions
 129996 bitcodewriter   - Number of bitcode bytes written
   2817 raise           - Number of insts DCEd or constprop'd
   3213 raise           - Number of cast-of-self removed
   5046 raise           - Number of expression trees converted
     75 raise           - Number of other getelementptr's formed
    138 raise           - Number of load/store peepholes
     42 deadtypeelim    - Number of unused typenames removed from symtab
    392 funcresolve     - Number of varargs functions resolved
     27 globaldce       - Number of global variables removed
      2 adce            - Number of basic blocks removed
    134 cee             - Number of branches revectored
     49 cee             - Number of setcc instruction eliminated
    532 gcse            - Number of loads removed
   2919 gcse            - Number of instructions removed
     86 indvars         - Number of canonical indvars added
     87 indvars         - Number of aux indvars removed
     25 instcombine     - Number of dead inst eliminate
    434 instcombine     - Number of insts combined
    248 licm            - Number of load insts hoisted
   1298 licm            - Number of insts hoisted to a loop pre-header
      3 licm            - Number of insts hoisted to multiple loop preds (bad, no loop pre-header)
     75 mem2reg         - Number of alloca's promoted
   1444 cfgsimplify     - Number of blocks simplified

Obviously, with so many optimizations, having a unified framework for this stuff
is very nice.  Making your pass fit well into the framework makes it more
maintainable and useful.

.. _DebugCounters:

Adding debug counters to aid in debugging your code
---------------------------------------------------

Sometimes, when writing new passes, or trying to track down bugs, it
is useful to be able to control whether certain things in your pass
happen or not.  For example, there are times the minimization tooling
can only easily give you large testcases.  You would like to narrow
your bug down to a specific transformation happening or not happening,
automatically, using bisection.  This is where debug counters help.
They provide a framework for making parts of your code only execute a
certain number of times.

The ``llvm/Support/DebugCounter.h`` (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/DebugCounter_8h_source.html>`__) file
provides a class named ``DebugCounter`` that can be used to create
command line counter options that control execution of parts of your code.

Define your DebugCounter like this:

.. code-block:: c++

  DEBUG_COUNTER(DeleteAnInstruction, "passname-delete-instruction",
		"Controls which instructions get delete");

The ``DEBUG_COUNTER`` macro defines a static variable, whose name
is specified by the first argument.  The name of the counter
(which is used on the command line) is specified by the second
argument, and the description used in the help is specified by the
third argument.

Whatever code you want that control, use ``DebugCounter::shouldExecute`` to control it.

.. code-block:: c++

  if (DebugCounter::shouldExecute(DeleteAnInstruction))
    I->eraseFromParent();

That's all you have to do.  Now, using opt, you can control when this code triggers using
the '``--debug-counter``' option.  There are two counters provided, ``skip`` and ``count``.
``skip`` is the number of times to skip execution of the codepath.  ``count`` is the number
of times, once we are done skipping, to execute the codepath.

.. code-block:: none

  $ opt --debug-counter=passname-delete-instruction-skip=1,passname-delete-instruction-count=2 -passname

This will skip the above code the first time we hit it, then execute it twice, then skip the rest of the executions.

So if executed on the following code:

.. code-block:: llvm

  %1 = add i32 %a, %b
  %2 = add i32 %a, %b
  %3 = add i32 %a, %b
  %4 = add i32 %a, %b

It would delete number ``%2`` and ``%3``.

A utility is provided in `utils/bisect-skip-count` to binary search
skip and count arguments. It can be used to automatically minimize the
skip and count for a debug-counter variable.

.. _ViewGraph:

Viewing graphs while debugging code
-----------------------------------

Several of the important data structures in LLVM are graphs: for example CFGs
made out of LLVM :ref:`BasicBlocks <BasicBlock>`, CFGs made out of LLVM
:ref:`MachineBasicBlocks <MachineBasicBlock>`, and :ref:`Instruction Selection
DAGs <SelectionDAG>`.  In many cases, while debugging various parts of the
compiler, it is nice to instantly visualize these graphs.

LLVM provides several callbacks that are available in a debug build to do
exactly that.  If you call the ``Function::viewCFG()`` method, for example, the
current LLVM tool will pop up a window containing the CFG for the function where
each basic block is a node in the graph, and each node contains the instructions
in the block.  Similarly, there also exists ``Function::viewCFGOnly()`` (does
not include the instructions), the ``MachineFunction::viewCFG()`` and
``MachineFunction::viewCFGOnly()``, and the ``SelectionDAG::viewGraph()``
methods.  Within GDB, for example, you can usually use something like ``call
DAG.viewGraph()`` to pop up a window.  Alternatively, you can sprinkle calls to
these functions in your code in places you want to debug.

Getting this to work requires a small amount of setup.  On Unix systems
with X11, install the `graphviz <http://www.graphviz.org>`_ toolkit, and make
sure 'dot' and 'gv' are in your path.  If you are running on Mac OS X, download
and install the Mac OS X `Graphviz program
<http://www.pixelglow.com/graphviz/>`_ and add
``/Applications/Graphviz.app/Contents/MacOS/`` (or wherever you install it) to
your path. The programs need not be present when configuring, building or
running LLVM and can simply be installed when needed during an active debug
session.

``SelectionDAG`` has been extended to make it easier to locate *interesting*
nodes in large complex graphs.  From gdb, if you ``call DAG.setGraphColor(node,
"color")``, then the next ``call DAG.viewGraph()`` would highlight the node in
the specified color (choices of colors can be found at `colors
<http://www.graphviz.org/doc/info/colors.html>`_.) More complex node attributes
can be provided with ``call DAG.setGraphAttrs(node, "attributes")`` (choices can
be found at `Graph attributes <http://www.graphviz.org/doc/info/attrs.html>`_.)
If you want to restart and clear all the current graph attributes, then you can
``call DAG.clearGraphAttrs()``.

Note that graph visualization features are compiled out of Release builds to
reduce file size.  This means that you need a Debug+Asserts or Release+Asserts
build to use these features.

.. _datastructure:

Picking the Right Data Structure for a Task
===========================================

LLVM has a plethora of data structures in the ``llvm/ADT/`` directory, and we
commonly use STL data structures.  This section describes the trade-offs you
should consider when you pick one.

The first step is a choose your own adventure: do you want a sequential
container, a set-like container, or a map-like container?  The most important
thing when choosing a container is the algorithmic properties of how you plan to
access the container.  Based on that, you should use:


* a :ref:`map-like <ds_map>` container if you need efficient look-up of a
  value based on another value.  Map-like containers also support efficient
  queries for containment (whether a key is in the map).  Map-like containers
  generally do not support efficient reverse mapping (values to keys).  If you
  need that, use two maps.  Some map-like containers also support efficient
  iteration through the keys in sorted order.  Map-like containers are the most
  expensive sort, only use them if you need one of these capabilities.

* a :ref:`set-like <ds_set>` container if you need to put a bunch of stuff into
  a container that automatically eliminates duplicates.  Some set-like
  containers support efficient iteration through the elements in sorted order.
  Set-like containers are more expensive than sequential containers.

* a :ref:`sequential <ds_sequential>` container provides the most efficient way
  to add elements and keeps track of the order they are added to the collection.
  They permit duplicates and support efficient iteration, but do not support
  efficient look-up based on a key.

* a :ref:`string <ds_string>` container is a specialized sequential container or
  reference structure that is used for character or byte arrays.

* a :ref:`bit <ds_bit>` container provides an efficient way to store and
  perform set operations on sets of numeric id's, while automatically
  eliminating duplicates.  Bit containers require a maximum of 1 bit for each
  identifier you want to store.

Once the proper category of container is determined, you can fine tune the
memory use, constant factors, and cache behaviors of access by intelligently
picking a member of the category.  Note that constant factors and cache behavior
can be a big deal.  If you have a vector that usually only contains a few
elements (but could contain many), for example, it's much better to use
:ref:`SmallVector <dss_smallvector>` than :ref:`vector <dss_vector>`.  Doing so
avoids (relatively) expensive malloc/free calls, which dwarf the cost of adding
the elements to the container.

.. _ds_sequential:

Sequential Containers (std::vector, std::list, etc)
---------------------------------------------------

There are a variety of sequential containers available for you, based on your
needs.  Pick the first in this section that will do what you want.

.. _dss_arrayref:

llvm/ADT/ArrayRef.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The ``llvm::ArrayRef`` class is the preferred class to use in an interface that
accepts a sequential list of elements in memory and just reads from them.  By
taking an ``ArrayRef``, the API can be passed a fixed size array, an
``std::vector``, an ``llvm::SmallVector`` and anything else that is contiguous
in memory.

.. _dss_fixedarrays:

Fixed Size Arrays
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Fixed size arrays are very simple and very fast.  They are good if you know
exactly how many elements you have, or you have a (low) upper bound on how many
you have.

.. _dss_heaparrays:

Heap Allocated Arrays
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Heap allocated arrays (``new[]`` + ``delete[]``) are also simple.  They are good
if the number of elements is variable, if you know how many elements you will
need before the array is allocated, and if the array is usually large (if not,
consider a :ref:`SmallVector <dss_smallvector>`).  The cost of a heap allocated
array is the cost of the new/delete (aka malloc/free).  Also note that if you
are allocating an array of a type with a constructor, the constructor and
destructors will be run for every element in the array (re-sizable vectors only
construct those elements actually used).

.. _dss_tinyptrvector:

llvm/ADT/TinyPtrVector.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``TinyPtrVector<Type>`` is a highly specialized collection class that is
optimized to avoid allocation in the case when a vector has zero or one
elements.  It has two major restrictions: 1) it can only hold values of pointer
type, and 2) it cannot hold a null pointer.

Since this container is highly specialized, it is rarely used.

.. _dss_smallvector:

llvm/ADT/SmallVector.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``SmallVector<Type, N>`` is a simple class that looks and smells just like
``vector<Type>``: it supports efficient iteration, lays out elements in memory
order (so you can do pointer arithmetic between elements), supports efficient
push_back/pop_back operations, supports efficient random access to its elements,
etc.

The advantage of SmallVector is that it allocates space for some number of
elements (N) **in the object itself**.  Because of this, if the SmallVector is
dynamically smaller than N, no malloc is performed.  This can be a big win in
cases where the malloc/free call is far more expensive than the code that
fiddles around with the elements.

This is good for vectors that are "usually small" (e.g. the number of
predecessors/successors of a block is usually less than 8).  On the other hand,
this makes the size of the SmallVector itself large, so you don't want to
allocate lots of them (doing so will waste a lot of space).  As such,
SmallVectors are most useful when on the stack.

SmallVector also provides a nice portable and efficient replacement for
``alloca``.

.. note::

   Prefer to use ``SmallVectorImpl<T>`` as a parameter type.

   In APIs that don't care about the "small size" (most?), prefer to use
   the ``SmallVectorImpl<T>`` class, which is basically just the "vector
   header" (and methods) without the elements allocated after it. Note that
   ``SmallVector<T, N>`` inherits from ``SmallVectorImpl<T>`` so the
   conversion is implicit and costs nothing. E.g.

   .. code-block:: c++

      // BAD: Clients cannot pass e.g. SmallVector<Foo, 4>.
      hardcodedSmallSize(SmallVector<Foo, 2> &Out);
      // GOOD: Clients can pass any SmallVector<Foo, N>.
      allowsAnySmallSize(SmallVectorImpl<Foo> &Out);

      void someFunc() {
        SmallVector<Foo, 8> Vec;
        hardcodedSmallSize(Vec); // Error.
        allowsAnySmallSize(Vec); // Works.
      }

   Even though it has "``Impl``" in the name, this is so widely used that
   it really isn't "private to the implementation" anymore. A name like
   ``SmallVectorHeader`` would be more appropriate.

.. _dss_vector:

<vector>
^^^^^^^^

``std::vector`` is well loved and respected.  It is useful when SmallVector
isn't: when the size of the vector is often large (thus the small optimization
will rarely be a benefit) or if you will be allocating many instances of the
vector itself (which would waste space for elements that aren't in the
container).  vector is also useful when interfacing with code that expects
vectors :).

One worthwhile note about std::vector: avoid code like this:

.. code-block:: c++

  for ( ... ) {
     std::vector<foo> V;
     // make use of V.
  }

Instead, write this as:

.. code-block:: c++

  std::vector<foo> V;
  for ( ... ) {
     // make use of V.
     V.clear();
  }

Doing so will save (at least) one heap allocation and free per iteration of the
loop.

.. _dss_deque:

<deque>
^^^^^^^

``std::deque`` is, in some senses, a generalized version of ``std::vector``.
Like ``std::vector``, it provides constant time random access and other similar
properties, but it also provides efficient access to the front of the list.  It
does not guarantee continuity of elements within memory.

In exchange for this extra flexibility, ``std::deque`` has significantly higher
constant factor costs than ``std::vector``.  If possible, use ``std::vector`` or
something cheaper.

.. _dss_list:

<list>
^^^^^^

``std::list`` is an extremely inefficient class that is rarely useful.  It
performs a heap allocation for every element inserted into it, thus having an
extremely high constant factor, particularly for small data types.
``std::list`` also only supports bidirectional iteration, not random access
iteration.

In exchange for this high cost, std::list supports efficient access to both ends
of the list (like ``std::deque``, but unlike ``std::vector`` or
``SmallVector``).  In addition, the iterator invalidation characteristics of
std::list are stronger than that of a vector class: inserting or removing an
element into the list does not invalidate iterator or pointers to other elements
in the list.

.. _dss_ilist:

llvm/ADT/ilist.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``ilist<T>`` implements an 'intrusive' doubly-linked list.  It is intrusive,
because it requires the element to store and provide access to the prev/next
pointers for the list.

``ilist`` has the same drawbacks as ``std::list``, and additionally requires an
``ilist_traits`` implementation for the element type, but it provides some novel
characteristics.  In particular, it can efficiently store polymorphic objects,
the traits class is informed when an element is inserted or removed from the
list, and ``ilist``\ s are guaranteed to support a constant-time splice
operation.

These properties are exactly what we want for things like ``Instruction``\ s and
basic blocks, which is why these are implemented with ``ilist``\ s.

Related classes of interest are explained in the following subsections:

* :ref:`ilist_traits <dss_ilist_traits>`

* :ref:`iplist <dss_iplist>`

* :ref:`llvm/ADT/ilist_node.h <dss_ilist_node>`

* :ref:`Sentinels <dss_ilist_sentinel>`

.. _dss_packedvector:

llvm/ADT/PackedVector.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Useful for storing a vector of values using only a few number of bits for each
value.  Apart from the standard operations of a vector-like container, it can
also perform an 'or' set operation.

For example:

.. code-block:: c++

  enum State {
      None = 0x0,
      FirstCondition = 0x1,
      SecondCondition = 0x2,
      Both = 0x3
  };

  State get() {
      PackedVector<State, 2> Vec1;
      Vec1.push_back(FirstCondition);

      PackedVector<State, 2> Vec2;
      Vec2.push_back(SecondCondition);

      Vec1 |= Vec2;
      return Vec1[0]; // returns 'Both'.
  }

.. _dss_ilist_traits:

ilist_traits
^^^^^^^^^^^^

``ilist_traits<T>`` is ``ilist<T>``'s customization mechanism. ``iplist<T>``
(and consequently ``ilist<T>``) publicly derive from this traits class.

.. _dss_iplist:

iplist
^^^^^^

``iplist<T>`` is ``ilist<T>``'s base and as such supports a slightly narrower
interface.  Notably, inserters from ``T&`` are absent.

``ilist_traits<T>`` is a public base of this class and can be used for a wide
variety of customizations.

.. _dss_ilist_node:

llvm/ADT/ilist_node.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``ilist_node<T>`` implements the forward and backward links that are expected
by the ``ilist<T>`` (and analogous containers) in the default manner.

``ilist_node<T>``\ s are meant to be embedded in the node type ``T``, usually
``T`` publicly derives from ``ilist_node<T>``.

.. _dss_ilist_sentinel:

Sentinels
^^^^^^^^^

``ilist``\ s have another specialty that must be considered.  To be a good
citizen in the C++ ecosystem, it needs to support the standard container
operations, such as ``begin`` and ``end`` iterators, etc.  Also, the
``operator--`` must work correctly on the ``end`` iterator in the case of
non-empty ``ilist``\ s.

The only sensible solution to this problem is to allocate a so-called *sentinel*
along with the intrusive list, which serves as the ``end`` iterator, providing
the back-link to the last element.  However conforming to the C++ convention it
is illegal to ``operator++`` beyond the sentinel and it also must not be
dereferenced.

These constraints allow for some implementation freedom to the ``ilist`` how to
allocate and store the sentinel.  The corresponding policy is dictated by
``ilist_traits<T>``.  By default a ``T`` gets heap-allocated whenever the need
for a sentinel arises.

While the default policy is sufficient in most cases, it may break down when
``T`` does not provide a default constructor.  Also, in the case of many
instances of ``ilist``\ s, the memory overhead of the associated sentinels is
wasted.  To alleviate the situation with numerous and voluminous
``T``-sentinels, sometimes a trick is employed, leading to *ghostly sentinels*.

Ghostly sentinels are obtained by specially-crafted ``ilist_traits<T>`` which
superpose the sentinel with the ``ilist`` instance in memory.  Pointer
arithmetic is used to obtain the sentinel, which is relative to the ``ilist``'s
``this`` pointer.  The ``ilist`` is augmented by an extra pointer, which serves
as the back-link of the sentinel.  This is the only field in the ghostly
sentinel which can be legally accessed.

.. _dss_other:

Other Sequential Container options
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Other STL containers are available, such as ``std::string``.

There are also various STL adapter classes such as ``std::queue``,
``std::priority_queue``, ``std::stack``, etc.  These provide simplified access
to an underlying container but don't affect the cost of the container itself.

.. _ds_string:

String-like containers
----------------------

There are a variety of ways to pass around and use strings in C and C++, and
LLVM adds a few new options to choose from.  Pick the first option on this list
that will do what you need, they are ordered according to their relative cost.

Note that it is generally preferred to *not* pass strings around as ``const
char*``'s.  These have a number of problems, including the fact that they
cannot represent embedded nul ("\0") characters, and do not have a length
available efficiently.  The general replacement for '``const char*``' is
StringRef.

For more information on choosing string containers for APIs, please see
:ref:`Passing Strings <string_apis>`.

.. _dss_stringref:

llvm/ADT/StringRef.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The StringRef class is a simple value class that contains a pointer to a
character and a length, and is quite related to the :ref:`ArrayRef
<dss_arrayref>` class (but specialized for arrays of characters).  Because
StringRef carries a length with it, it safely handles strings with embedded nul
characters in it, getting the length does not require a strlen call, and it even
has very convenient APIs for slicing and dicing the character range that it
represents.

StringRef is ideal for passing simple strings around that are known to be live,
either because they are C string literals, std::string, a C array, or a
SmallVector.  Each of these cases has an efficient implicit conversion to
StringRef, which doesn't result in a dynamic strlen being executed.

StringRef has a few major limitations which make more powerful string containers
useful:

#. You cannot directly convert a StringRef to a 'const char*' because there is
   no way to add a trailing nul (unlike the .c_str() method on various stronger
   classes).

#. StringRef doesn't own or keep alive the underlying string bytes.
   As such it can easily lead to dangling pointers, and is not suitable for
   embedding in datastructures in most cases (instead, use an std::string or
   something like that).

#. For the same reason, StringRef cannot be used as the return value of a
   method if the method "computes" the result string.  Instead, use std::string.

#. StringRef's do not allow you to mutate the pointed-to string bytes and it
   doesn't allow you to insert or remove bytes from the range.  For editing
   operations like this, it interoperates with the :ref:`Twine <dss_twine>`
   class.

Because of its strengths and limitations, it is very common for a function to
take a StringRef and for a method on an object to return a StringRef that points
into some string that it owns.

.. _dss_twine:

llvm/ADT/Twine.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The Twine class is used as an intermediary datatype for APIs that want to take a
string that can be constructed inline with a series of concatenations.  Twine
works by forming recursive instances of the Twine datatype (a simple value
object) on the stack as temporary objects, linking them together into a tree
which is then linearized when the Twine is consumed.  Twine is only safe to use
as the argument to a function, and should always be a const reference, e.g.:

.. code-block:: c++

  void foo(const Twine &T);
  ...
  StringRef X = ...
  unsigned i = ...
  foo(X + "." + Twine(i));

This example forms a string like "blarg.42" by concatenating the values
together, and does not form intermediate strings containing "blarg" or "blarg.".

Because Twine is constructed with temporary objects on the stack, and because
these instances are destroyed at the end of the current statement, it is an
inherently dangerous API.  For example, this simple variant contains undefined
behavior and will probably crash:

.. code-block:: c++

  void foo(const Twine &T);
  ...
  StringRef X = ...
  unsigned i = ...
  const Twine &Tmp = X + "." + Twine(i);
  foo(Tmp);

... because the temporaries are destroyed before the call.  That said, Twine's
are much more efficient than intermediate std::string temporaries, and they work
really well with StringRef.  Just be aware of their limitations.

.. _dss_smallstring:

llvm/ADT/SmallString.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

SmallString is a subclass of :ref:`SmallVector <dss_smallvector>` that adds some
convenience APIs like += that takes StringRef's.  SmallString avoids allocating
memory in the case when the preallocated space is enough to hold its data, and
it calls back to general heap allocation when required.  Since it owns its data,
it is very safe to use and supports full mutation of the string.

Like SmallVector's, the big downside to SmallString is their sizeof.  While they
are optimized for small strings, they themselves are not particularly small.
This means that they work great for temporary scratch buffers on the stack, but
should not generally be put into the heap: it is very rare to see a SmallString
as the member of a frequently-allocated heap data structure or returned
by-value.

.. _dss_stdstring:

std::string
^^^^^^^^^^^

The standard C++ std::string class is a very general class that (like
SmallString) owns its underlying data.  sizeof(std::string) is very reasonable
so it can be embedded into heap data structures and returned by-value.  On the
other hand, std::string is highly inefficient for inline editing (e.g.
concatenating a bunch of stuff together) and because it is provided by the
standard library, its performance characteristics depend a lot of the host
standard library (e.g. libc++ and MSVC provide a highly optimized string class,
GCC contains a really slow implementation).

The major disadvantage of std::string is that almost every operation that makes
them larger can allocate memory, which is slow.  As such, it is better to use
SmallVector or Twine as a scratch buffer, but then use std::string to persist
the result.

.. _ds_set:

Set-Like Containers (std::set, SmallSet, SetVector, etc)
--------------------------------------------------------

Set-like containers are useful when you need to canonicalize multiple values
into a single representation.  There are several different choices for how to do
this, providing various trade-offs.

.. _dss_sortedvectorset:

A sorted 'vector'
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

If you intend to insert a lot of elements, then do a lot of queries, a great
approach is to use a vector (or other sequential container) with
std::sort+std::unique to remove duplicates.  This approach works really well if
your usage pattern has these two distinct phases (insert then query), and can be
coupled with a good choice of :ref:`sequential container <ds_sequential>`.

This combination provides the several nice properties: the result data is
contiguous in memory (good for cache locality), has few allocations, is easy to
address (iterators in the final vector are just indices or pointers), and can be
efficiently queried with a standard binary search (e.g.
``std::lower_bound``; if you want the whole range of elements comparing
equal, use ``std::equal_range``).

.. _dss_smallset:

llvm/ADT/SmallSet.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

If you have a set-like data structure that is usually small and whose elements
are reasonably small, a ``SmallSet<Type, N>`` is a good choice.  This set has
space for N elements in place (thus, if the set is dynamically smaller than N,
no malloc traffic is required) and accesses them with a simple linear search.
When the set grows beyond N elements, it allocates a more expensive
representation that guarantees efficient access (for most types, it falls back
to :ref:`std::set <dss_set>`, but for pointers it uses something far better,
:ref:`SmallPtrSet <dss_smallptrset>`.

The magic of this class is that it handles small sets extremely efficiently, but
gracefully handles extremely large sets without loss of efficiency.  The
drawback is that the interface is quite small: it supports insertion, queries
and erasing, but does not support iteration.

.. _dss_smallptrset:

llvm/ADT/SmallPtrSet.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``SmallPtrSet`` has all the advantages of ``SmallSet`` (and a ``SmallSet`` of
pointers is transparently implemented with a ``SmallPtrSet``), but also supports
iterators.  If more than N insertions are performed, a single quadratically
probed hash table is allocated and grows as needed, providing extremely
efficient access (constant time insertion/deleting/queries with low constant
factors) and is very stingy with malloc traffic.

Note that, unlike :ref:`std::set <dss_set>`, the iterators of ``SmallPtrSet``
are invalidated whenever an insertion occurs.  Also, the values visited by the
iterators are not visited in sorted order.

.. _dss_stringset:

llvm/ADT/StringSet.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``StringSet`` is a thin wrapper around :ref:`StringMap\<char\> <dss_stringmap>`,
and it allows efficient storage and retrieval of unique strings.

Functionally analogous to ``SmallSet<StringRef>``, ``StringSet`` also supports
iteration. (The iterator dereferences to a ``StringMapEntry<char>``, so you
need to call ``i->getKey()`` to access the item of the StringSet.)  On the
other hand, ``StringSet`` doesn't support range-insertion and
copy-construction, which :ref:`SmallSet <dss_smallset>` and :ref:`SmallPtrSet
<dss_smallptrset>` do support.

.. _dss_denseset:

llvm/ADT/DenseSet.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

DenseSet is a simple quadratically probed hash table.  It excels at supporting
small values: it uses a single allocation to hold all of the pairs that are
currently inserted in the set.  DenseSet is a great way to unique small values
that are not simple pointers (use :ref:`SmallPtrSet <dss_smallptrset>` for
pointers).  Note that DenseSet has the same requirements for the value type that
:ref:`DenseMap <dss_densemap>` has.

.. _dss_sparseset:

llvm/ADT/SparseSet.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

SparseSet holds a small number of objects identified by unsigned keys of
moderate size.  It uses a lot of memory, but provides operations that are almost
as fast as a vector.  Typical keys are physical registers, virtual registers, or
numbered basic blocks.

SparseSet is useful for algorithms that need very fast clear/find/insert/erase
and fast iteration over small sets.  It is not intended for building composite
data structures.

.. _dss_sparsemultiset:

llvm/ADT/SparseMultiSet.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

SparseMultiSet adds multiset behavior to SparseSet, while retaining SparseSet's
desirable attributes. Like SparseSet, it typically uses a lot of memory, but
provides operations that are almost as fast as a vector.  Typical keys are
physical registers, virtual registers, or numbered basic blocks.

SparseMultiSet is useful for algorithms that need very fast
clear/find/insert/erase of the entire collection, and iteration over sets of
elements sharing a key. It is often a more efficient choice than using composite
data structures (e.g. vector-of-vectors, map-of-vectors). It is not intended for
building composite data structures.

.. _dss_FoldingSet:

llvm/ADT/FoldingSet.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

FoldingSet is an aggregate class that is really good at uniquing
expensive-to-create or polymorphic objects.  It is a combination of a chained
hash table with intrusive links (uniqued objects are required to inherit from
FoldingSetNode) that uses :ref:`SmallVector <dss_smallvector>` as part of its ID
process.

Consider a case where you want to implement a "getOrCreateFoo" method for a
complex object (for example, a node in the code generator).  The client has a
description of **what** it wants to generate (it knows the opcode and all the
operands), but we don't want to 'new' a node, then try inserting it into a set
only to find out it already exists, at which point we would have to delete it
and return the node that already exists.

To support this style of client, FoldingSet perform a query with a
FoldingSetNodeID (which wraps SmallVector) that can be used to describe the
element that we want to query for.  The query either returns the element
matching the ID or it returns an opaque ID that indicates where insertion should
take place.  Construction of the ID usually does not require heap traffic.

Because FoldingSet uses intrusive links, it can support polymorphic objects in
the set (for example, you can have SDNode instances mixed with LoadSDNodes).
Because the elements are individually allocated, pointers to the elements are
stable: inserting or removing elements does not invalidate any pointers to other
elements.

.. _dss_set:

<set>
^^^^^

``std::set`` is a reasonable all-around set class, which is decent at many
things but great at nothing.  std::set allocates memory for each element
inserted (thus it is very malloc intensive) and typically stores three pointers
per element in the set (thus adding a large amount of per-element space
overhead).  It offers guaranteed log(n) performance, which is not particularly
fast from a complexity standpoint (particularly if the elements of the set are
expensive to compare, like strings), and has extremely high constant factors for
lookup, insertion and removal.

The advantages of std::set are that its iterators are stable (deleting or
inserting an element from the set does not affect iterators or pointers to other
elements) and that iteration over the set is guaranteed to be in sorted order.
If the elements in the set are large, then the relative overhead of the pointers
and malloc traffic is not a big deal, but if the elements of the set are small,
std::set is almost never a good choice.

.. _dss_setvector:

llvm/ADT/SetVector.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

LLVM's ``SetVector<Type>`` is an adapter class that combines your choice of a
set-like container along with a :ref:`Sequential Container <ds_sequential>` The
important property that this provides is efficient insertion with uniquing
(duplicate elements are ignored) with iteration support.  It implements this by
inserting elements into both a set-like container and the sequential container,
using the set-like container for uniquing and the sequential container for
iteration.

The difference between SetVector and other sets is that the order of iteration
is guaranteed to match the order of insertion into the SetVector.  This property
is really important for things like sets of pointers.  Because pointer values
are non-deterministic (e.g. vary across runs of the program on different
machines), iterating over the pointers in the set will not be in a well-defined
order.

The drawback of SetVector is that it requires twice as much space as a normal
set and has the sum of constant factors from the set-like container and the
sequential container that it uses.  Use it **only** if you need to iterate over
the elements in a deterministic order.  SetVector is also expensive to delete
elements out of (linear time), unless you use its "pop_back" method, which is
faster.

``SetVector`` is an adapter class that defaults to using ``std::vector`` and a
size 16 ``SmallSet`` for the underlying containers, so it is quite expensive.
However, ``"llvm/ADT/SetVector.h"`` also provides a ``SmallSetVector`` class,
which defaults to using a ``SmallVector`` and ``SmallSet`` of a specified size.
If you use this, and if your sets are dynamically smaller than ``N``, you will
save a lot of heap traffic.

.. _dss_uniquevector:

llvm/ADT/UniqueVector.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

UniqueVector is similar to :ref:`SetVector <dss_setvector>` but it retains a
unique ID for each element inserted into the set.  It internally contains a map
and a vector, and it assigns a unique ID for each value inserted into the set.

UniqueVector is very expensive: its cost is the sum of the cost of maintaining
both the map and vector, it has high complexity, high constant factors, and
produces a lot of malloc traffic.  It should be avoided.

.. _dss_immutableset:

llvm/ADT/ImmutableSet.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

ImmutableSet is an immutable (functional) set implementation based on an AVL
tree.  Adding or removing elements is done through a Factory object and results
in the creation of a new ImmutableSet object.  If an ImmutableSet already exists
with the given contents, then the existing one is returned; equality is compared
with a FoldingSetNodeID.  The time and space complexity of add or remove
operations is logarithmic in the size of the original set.

There is no method for returning an element of the set, you can only check for
membership.

.. _dss_otherset:

Other Set-Like Container Options
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The STL provides several other options, such as std::multiset and the various
"hash_set" like containers (whether from C++ TR1 or from the SGI library).  We
never use hash_set and unordered_set because they are generally very expensive
(each insertion requires a malloc) and very non-portable.

std::multiset is useful if you're not interested in elimination of duplicates,
but has all the drawbacks of :ref:`std::set <dss_set>`.  A sorted vector
(where you don't delete duplicate entries) or some other approach is almost
always better.

.. _ds_map:

Map-Like Containers (std::map, DenseMap, etc)
---------------------------------------------

Map-like containers are useful when you want to associate data to a key.  As
usual, there are a lot of different ways to do this. :)

.. _dss_sortedvectormap:

A sorted 'vector'
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

If your usage pattern follows a strict insert-then-query approach, you can
trivially use the same approach as :ref:`sorted vectors for set-like containers
<dss_sortedvectorset>`.  The only difference is that your query function (which
uses std::lower_bound to get efficient log(n) lookup) should only compare the
key, not both the key and value.  This yields the same advantages as sorted
vectors for sets.

.. _dss_stringmap:

llvm/ADT/StringMap.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Strings are commonly used as keys in maps, and they are difficult to support
efficiently: they are variable length, inefficient to hash and compare when
long, expensive to copy, etc.  StringMap is a specialized container designed to
cope with these issues.  It supports mapping an arbitrary range of bytes to an
arbitrary other object.

The StringMap implementation uses a quadratically-probed hash table, where the
buckets store a pointer to the heap allocated entries (and some other stuff).
The entries in the map must be heap allocated because the strings are variable
length.  The string data (key) and the element object (value) are stored in the
same allocation with the string data immediately after the element object.
This container guarantees the "``(char*)(&Value+1)``" points to the key string
for a value.

The StringMap is very fast for several reasons: quadratic probing is very cache
efficient for lookups, the hash value of strings in buckets is not recomputed
when looking up an element, StringMap rarely has to touch the memory for
unrelated objects when looking up a value (even when hash collisions happen),
hash table growth does not recompute the hash values for strings already in the
table, and each pair in the map is store in a single allocation (the string data
is stored in the same allocation as the Value of a pair).

StringMap also provides query methods that take byte ranges, so it only ever
copies a string if a value is inserted into the table.

StringMap iteration order, however, is not guaranteed to be deterministic, so
any uses which require that should instead use a std::map.

.. _dss_indexmap:

llvm/ADT/IndexedMap.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

IndexedMap is a specialized container for mapping small dense integers (or
values that can be mapped to small dense integers) to some other type.  It is
internally implemented as a vector with a mapping function that maps the keys
to the dense integer range.

This is useful for cases like virtual registers in the LLVM code generator: they
have a dense mapping that is offset by a compile-time constant (the first
virtual register ID).

.. _dss_densemap:

llvm/ADT/DenseMap.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

DenseMap is a simple quadratically probed hash table.  It excels at supporting
small keys and values: it uses a single allocation to hold all of the pairs
that are currently inserted in the map.  DenseMap is a great way to map
pointers to pointers, or map other small types to each other.

There are several aspects of DenseMap that you should be aware of, however.
The iterators in a DenseMap are invalidated whenever an insertion occurs,
unlike map.  Also, because DenseMap allocates space for a large number of
key/value pairs (it starts with 64 by default), it will waste a lot of space if
your keys or values are large.  Finally, you must implement a partial
specialization of DenseMapInfo for the key that you want, if it isn't already
supported.  This is required to tell DenseMap about two special marker values
(which can never be inserted into the map) that it needs internally.

DenseMap's find_as() method supports lookup operations using an alternate key
type.  This is useful in cases where the normal key type is expensive to
construct, but cheap to compare against.  The DenseMapInfo is responsible for
defining the appropriate comparison and hashing methods for each alternate key
type used.

.. _dss_valuemap:

llvm/IR/ValueMap.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

ValueMap is a wrapper around a :ref:`DenseMap <dss_densemap>` mapping
``Value*``\ s (or subclasses) to another type.  When a Value is deleted or
RAUW'ed, ValueMap will update itself so the new version of the key is mapped to
the same value, just as if the key were a WeakVH.  You can configure exactly how
this happens, and what else happens on these two events, by passing a ``Config``
parameter to the ValueMap template.

.. _dss_intervalmap:

llvm/ADT/IntervalMap.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

IntervalMap is a compact map for small keys and values.  It maps key intervals
instead of single keys, and it will automatically coalesce adjacent intervals.
When the map only contains a few intervals, they are stored in the map object
itself to avoid allocations.

The IntervalMap iterators are quite big, so they should not be passed around as
STL iterators.  The heavyweight iterators allow a smaller data structure.

.. _dss_map:

<map>
^^^^^

std::map has similar characteristics to :ref:`std::set <dss_set>`: it uses a
single allocation per pair inserted into the map, it offers log(n) lookup with
an extremely large constant factor, imposes a space penalty of 3 pointers per
pair in the map, etc.

std::map is most useful when your keys or values are very large, if you need to
iterate over the collection in sorted order, or if you need stable iterators
into the map (i.e. they don't get invalidated if an insertion or deletion of
another element takes place).

.. _dss_mapvector:

llvm/ADT/MapVector.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``MapVector<KeyT,ValueT>`` provides a subset of the DenseMap interface.  The
main difference is that the iteration order is guaranteed to be the insertion
order, making it an easy (but somewhat expensive) solution for non-deterministic
iteration over maps of pointers.

It is implemented by mapping from key to an index in a vector of key,value
pairs.  This provides fast lookup and iteration, but has two main drawbacks:
the key is stored twice and removing elements takes linear time.  If it is
necessary to remove elements, it's best to remove them in bulk using
``remove_if()``.

.. _dss_inteqclasses:

llvm/ADT/IntEqClasses.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

IntEqClasses provides a compact representation of equivalence classes of small
integers.  Initially, each integer in the range 0..n-1 has its own equivalence
class.  Classes can be joined by passing two class representatives to the
join(a, b) method.  Two integers are in the same class when findLeader() returns
the same representative.

Once all equivalence classes are formed, the map can be compressed so each
integer 0..n-1 maps to an equivalence class number in the range 0..m-1, where m
is the total number of equivalence classes.  The map must be uncompressed before
it can be edited again.

.. _dss_immutablemap:

llvm/ADT/ImmutableMap.h
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

ImmutableMap is an immutable (functional) map implementation based on an AVL
tree.  Adding or removing elements is done through a Factory object and results
in the creation of a new ImmutableMap object.  If an ImmutableMap already exists
with the given key set, then the existing one is returned; equality is compared
with a FoldingSetNodeID.  The time and space complexity of add or remove
operations is logarithmic in the size of the original map.

.. _dss_othermap:

Other Map-Like Container Options
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The STL provides several other options, such as std::multimap and the various
"hash_map" like containers (whether from C++ TR1 or from the SGI library).  We
never use hash_set and unordered_set because they are generally very expensive
(each insertion requires a malloc) and very non-portable.

std::multimap is useful if you want to map a key to multiple values, but has all
the drawbacks of std::map.  A sorted vector or some other approach is almost
always better.

.. _ds_bit:

Bit storage containers (BitVector, SparseBitVector)
---------------------------------------------------

Unlike the other containers, there are only two bit storage containers, and
choosing when to use each is relatively straightforward.

One additional option is ``std::vector<bool>``: we discourage its use for two
reasons 1) the implementation in many common compilers (e.g.  commonly
available versions of GCC) is extremely inefficient and 2) the C++ standards
committee is likely to deprecate this container and/or change it significantly
somehow.  In any case, please don't use it.

.. _dss_bitvector:

BitVector
^^^^^^^^^

The BitVector container provides a dynamic size set of bits for manipulation.
It supports individual bit setting/testing, as well as set operations.  The set
operations take time O(size of bitvector), but operations are performed one word
at a time, instead of one bit at a time.  This makes the BitVector very fast for
set operations compared to other containers.  Use the BitVector when you expect
the number of set bits to be high (i.e. a dense set).

.. _dss_smallbitvector:

SmallBitVector
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The SmallBitVector container provides the same interface as BitVector, but it is
optimized for the case where only a small number of bits, less than 25 or so,
are needed.  It also transparently supports larger bit counts, but slightly less
efficiently than a plain BitVector, so SmallBitVector should only be used when
larger counts are rare.

At this time, SmallBitVector does not support set operations (and, or, xor), and
its operator[] does not provide an assignable lvalue.

.. _dss_sparsebitvector:

SparseBitVector
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The SparseBitVector container is much like BitVector, with one major difference:
Only the bits that are set, are stored.  This makes the SparseBitVector much
more space efficient than BitVector when the set is sparse, as well as making
set operations O(number of set bits) instead of O(size of universe).  The
downside to the SparseBitVector is that setting and testing of random bits is
O(N), and on large SparseBitVectors, this can be slower than BitVector.  In our
implementation, setting or testing bits in sorted order (either forwards or
reverse) is O(1) worst case.  Testing and setting bits within 128 bits (depends
on size) of the current bit is also O(1).  As a general statement,
testing/setting bits in a SparseBitVector is O(distance away from last set bit).

.. _debugging:

Debugging
=========

A handful of `GDB pretty printers
<https://sourceware.org/gdb/onlinedocs/gdb/Pretty-Printing.html>`__ are
provided for some of the core LLVM libraries. To use them, execute the
following (or add it to your ``~/.gdbinit``)::

  source /path/to/llvm/src/utils/gdb-scripts/prettyprinters.py

It also might be handy to enable the `print pretty
<http://ftp.gnu.org/old-gnu/Manuals/gdb/html_node/gdb_57.html>`__ option to
avoid data structures being printed as a big block of text.

.. _common:

Helpful Hints for Common Operations
===================================

This section describes how to perform some very simple transformations of LLVM
code.  This is meant to give examples of common idioms used, showing the
practical side of LLVM transformations.

Because this is a "how-to" section, you should also read about the main classes
that you will be working with.  The :ref:`Core LLVM Class Hierarchy Reference
<coreclasses>` contains details and descriptions of the main classes that you
should know about.

.. _inspection:

Basic Inspection and Traversal Routines
---------------------------------------

The LLVM compiler infrastructure have many different data structures that may be
traversed.  Following the example of the C++ standard template library, the
techniques used to traverse these various data structures are all basically the
same.  For a enumerable sequence of values, the ``XXXbegin()`` function (or
method) returns an iterator to the start of the sequence, the ``XXXend()``
function returns an iterator pointing to one past the last valid element of the
sequence, and there is some ``XXXiterator`` data type that is common between the
two operations.

Because the pattern for iteration is common across many different aspects of the
program representation, the standard template library algorithms may be used on
them, and it is easier to remember how to iterate.  First we show a few common
examples of the data structures that need to be traversed.  Other data
structures are traversed in very similar ways.

.. _iterate_function:

Iterating over the ``BasicBlock`` in a ``Function``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

It's quite common to have a ``Function`` instance that you'd like to transform
in some way; in particular, you'd like to manipulate its ``BasicBlock``\ s.  To
facilitate this, you'll need to iterate over all of the ``BasicBlock``\ s that
constitute the ``Function``.  The following is an example that prints the name
of a ``BasicBlock`` and the number of ``Instruction``\ s it contains:

.. code-block:: c++

  Function &Func = ...
  for (BasicBlock &BB : Func)
    // Print out the name of the basic block if it has one, and then the
    // number of instructions that it contains
    errs() << "Basic block (name=" << BB.getName() << ") has "
               << BB.size() << " instructions.\n";

.. _iterate_basicblock:

Iterating over the ``Instruction`` in a ``BasicBlock``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Just like when dealing with ``BasicBlock``\ s in ``Function``\ s, it's easy to
iterate over the individual instructions that make up ``BasicBlock``\ s.  Here's
a code snippet that prints out each instruction in a ``BasicBlock``:

.. code-block:: c++

  BasicBlock& BB = ...
  for (Instruction &I : BB)
     // The next statement works since operator<<(ostream&,...)
     // is overloaded for Instruction&
     errs() << I << "\n";


However, this isn't really the best way to print out the contents of a
``BasicBlock``!  Since the ostream operators are overloaded for virtually
anything you'll care about, you could have just invoked the print routine on the
basic block itself: ``errs() << BB << "\n";``.

.. _iterate_insiter:

Iterating over the ``Instruction`` in a ``Function``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

If you're finding that you commonly iterate over a ``Function``'s
``BasicBlock``\ s and then that ``BasicBlock``'s ``Instruction``\ s,
``InstIterator`` should be used instead.  You'll need to include
``llvm/IR/InstIterator.h`` (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/InstIterator_8h.html>`__) and then instantiate
``InstIterator``\ s explicitly in your code.  Here's a small example that shows
how to dump all instructions in a function to the standard error stream:

.. code-block:: c++

  #include "llvm/IR/InstIterator.h"

  // F is a pointer to a Function instance
  for (inst_iterator I = inst_begin(F), E = inst_end(F); I != E; ++I)
    errs() << *I << "\n";

Easy, isn't it?  You can also use ``InstIterator``\ s to fill a work list with
its initial contents.  For example, if you wanted to initialize a work list to
contain all instructions in a ``Function`` F, all you would need to do is
something like:

.. code-block:: c++

  std::set<Instruction*> worklist;
  // or better yet, SmallPtrSet<Instruction*, 64> worklist;

  for (inst_iterator I = inst_begin(F), E = inst_end(F); I != E; ++I)
    worklist.insert(&*I);

The STL set ``worklist`` would now contain all instructions in the ``Function``
pointed to by F.

.. _iterate_convert:

Turning an iterator into a class pointer (and vice-versa)
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Sometimes, it'll be useful to grab a reference (or pointer) to a class instance
when all you've got at hand is an iterator.  Well, extracting a reference or a
pointer from an iterator is very straight-forward.  Assuming that ``i`` is a
``BasicBlock::iterator`` and ``j`` is a ``BasicBlock::const_iterator``:

.. code-block:: c++

  Instruction& inst = *i;   // Grab reference to instruction reference
  Instruction* pinst = &*i; // Grab pointer to instruction reference
  const Instruction& inst = *j;

However, the iterators you'll be working with in the LLVM framework are special:
they will automatically convert to a ptr-to-instance type whenever they need to.
Instead of dereferencing the iterator and then taking the address of the result,
you can simply assign the iterator to the proper pointer type and you get the
dereference and address-of operation as a result of the assignment (behind the
scenes, this is a result of overloading casting mechanisms).  Thus the second
line of the last example,

.. code-block:: c++

  Instruction *pinst = &*i;

is semantically equivalent to

.. code-block:: c++

  Instruction *pinst = i;

It's also possible to turn a class pointer into the corresponding iterator, and
this is a constant time operation (very efficient).  The following code snippet
illustrates use of the conversion constructors provided by LLVM iterators.  By
using these, you can explicitly grab the iterator of something without actually
obtaining it via iteration over some structure:

.. code-block:: c++

  void printNextInstruction(Instruction* inst) {
    BasicBlock::iterator it(inst);
    ++it; // After this line, it refers to the instruction after *inst
    if (it != inst->getParent()->end()) errs() << *it << "\n";
  }

Unfortunately, these implicit conversions come at a cost; they prevent these
iterators from conforming to standard iterator conventions, and thus from being
usable with standard algorithms and containers.  For example, they prevent the
following code, where ``B`` is a ``BasicBlock``, from compiling:

.. code-block:: c++

  llvm::SmallVector<llvm::Instruction *, 16>(B->begin(), B->end());

Because of this, these implicit conversions may be removed some day, and
``operator*`` changed to return a pointer instead of a reference.

.. _iterate_complex:

Finding call sites: a slightly more complex example
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Say that you're writing a FunctionPass and would like to count all the locations
in the entire module (that is, across every ``Function``) where a certain
function (i.e., some ``Function *``) is already in scope.  As you'll learn
later, you may want to use an ``InstVisitor`` to accomplish this in a much more
straight-forward manner, but this example will allow us to explore how you'd do
it if you didn't have ``InstVisitor`` around.  In pseudo-code, this is what we
want to do:

.. code-block:: none

  initialize callCounter to zero
  for each Function f in the Module
    for each BasicBlock b in f
      for each Instruction i in b
        if (i is a CallInst and calls the given function)
          increment callCounter

And the actual code is (remember, because we're writing a ``FunctionPass``, our
``FunctionPass``-derived class simply has to override the ``runOnFunction``
method):

.. code-block:: c++

  Function* targetFunc = ...;

  class OurFunctionPass : public FunctionPass {
    public:
      OurFunctionPass(): callCounter(0) { }

      virtual runOnFunction(Function& F) {
        for (BasicBlock &B : F) {
          for (Instruction &I: B) {
            if (auto *CallInst = dyn_cast<CallInst>(&I)) {
              // We know we've encountered a call instruction, so we
              // need to determine if it's a call to the
              // function pointed to by m_func or not.
              if (CallInst->getCalledFunction() == targetFunc)
                ++callCounter;
            }
          }
        }
      }

    private:
      unsigned callCounter;
  };

.. _calls_and_invokes:

Treating calls and invokes the same way
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

You may have noticed that the previous example was a bit oversimplified in that
it did not deal with call sites generated by 'invoke' instructions.  In this,
and in other situations, you may find that you want to treat ``CallInst``\ s and
``InvokeInst``\ s the same way, even though their most-specific common base
class is ``Instruction``, which includes lots of less closely-related things.
For these cases, LLVM provides a handy wrapper class called ``CallSite``
(`doxygen <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1CallSite.html>`__) It is
essentially a wrapper around an ``Instruction`` pointer, with some methods that
provide functionality common to ``CallInst``\ s and ``InvokeInst``\ s.

This class has "value semantics": it should be passed by value, not by reference
and it should not be dynamically allocated or deallocated using ``operator new``
or ``operator delete``.  It is efficiently copyable, assignable and
constructable, with costs equivalents to that of a bare pointer.  If you look at
its definition, it has only a single pointer member.

.. _iterate_chains:

Iterating over def-use & use-def chains
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Frequently, we might have an instance of the ``Value`` class (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Value.html>`__) and we want to determine
which ``User`` s use the ``Value``.  The list of all ``User``\ s of a particular
``Value`` is called a *def-use* chain.  For example, let's say we have a
``Function*`` named ``F`` to a particular function ``foo``.  Finding all of the
instructions that *use* ``foo`` is as simple as iterating over the *def-use*
chain of ``F``:

.. code-block:: c++

  Function *F = ...;

  for (User *U : F->users()) {
    if (Instruction *Inst = dyn_cast<Instruction>(U)) {
      errs() << "F is used in instruction:\n";
      errs() << *Inst << "\n";
    }

Alternatively, it's common to have an instance of the ``User`` Class (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1User.html>`__) and need to know what
``Value``\ s are used by it.  The list of all ``Value``\ s used by a ``User`` is
known as a *use-def* chain.  Instances of class ``Instruction`` are common
``User`` s, so we might want to iterate over all of the values that a particular
instruction uses (that is, the operands of the particular ``Instruction``):

.. code-block:: c++

  Instruction *pi = ...;

  for (Use &U : pi->operands()) {
    Value *v = U.get();
    // ...
  }

Declaring objects as ``const`` is an important tool of enforcing mutation free
algorithms (such as analyses, etc.).  For this purpose above iterators come in
constant flavors as ``Value::const_use_iterator`` and
``Value::const_op_iterator``.  They automatically arise when calling
``use/op_begin()`` on ``const Value*``\ s or ``const User*``\ s respectively.
Upon dereferencing, they return ``const Use*``\ s.  Otherwise the above patterns
remain unchanged.

.. _iterate_preds:

Iterating over predecessors & successors of blocks
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Iterating over the predecessors and successors of a block is quite easy with the
routines defined in ``"llvm/IR/CFG.h"``.  Just use code like this to
iterate over all predecessors of BB:

.. code-block:: c++

  #include "llvm/IR/CFG.h"
  BasicBlock *BB = ...;

  for (BasicBlock *Pred : predecessors(BB)) {
    // ...
  }

Similarly, to iterate over successors use ``successors``.

.. _simplechanges:

Making simple changes
---------------------

There are some primitive transformation operations present in the LLVM
infrastructure that are worth knowing about.  When performing transformations,
it's fairly common to manipulate the contents of basic blocks.  This section
describes some of the common methods for doing so and gives example code.

.. _schanges_creating:

Creating and inserting new ``Instruction``\ s
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

*Instantiating Instructions*

Creation of ``Instruction``\ s is straight-forward: simply call the constructor
for the kind of instruction to instantiate and provide the necessary parameters.
For example, an ``AllocaInst`` only *requires* a (const-ptr-to) ``Type``.  Thus:

.. code-block:: c++

  auto *ai = new AllocaInst(Type::Int32Ty);

will create an ``AllocaInst`` instance that represents the allocation of one
integer in the current stack frame, at run time.  Each ``Instruction`` subclass
is likely to have varying default parameters which change the semantics of the
instruction, so refer to the `doxygen documentation for the subclass of
Instruction <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Instruction.html>`_ that
you're interested in instantiating.

*Naming values*

It is very useful to name the values of instructions when you're able to, as
this facilitates the debugging of your transformations.  If you end up looking
at generated LLVM machine code, you definitely want to have logical names
associated with the results of instructions!  By supplying a value for the
``Name`` (default) parameter of the ``Instruction`` constructor, you associate a
logical name with the result of the instruction's execution at run time.  For
example, say that I'm writing a transformation that dynamically allocates space
for an integer on the stack, and that integer is going to be used as some kind
of index by some other code.  To accomplish this, I place an ``AllocaInst`` at
the first point in the first ``BasicBlock`` of some ``Function``, and I'm
intending to use it within the same ``Function``.  I might do:

.. code-block:: c++

  auto *pa = new AllocaInst(Type::Int32Ty, 0, "indexLoc");

where ``indexLoc`` is now the logical name of the instruction's execution value,
which is a pointer to an integer on the run time stack.

*Inserting instructions*

There are essentially three ways to insert an ``Instruction`` into an existing
sequence of instructions that form a ``BasicBlock``:

* Insertion into an explicit instruction list

  Given a ``BasicBlock* pb``, an ``Instruction* pi`` within that ``BasicBlock``,
  and a newly-created instruction we wish to insert before ``*pi``, we do the
  following:

  .. code-block:: c++

      BasicBlock *pb = ...;
      Instruction *pi = ...;
      auto *newInst = new Instruction(...);

      pb->getInstList().insert(pi, newInst); // Inserts newInst before pi in pb

  Appending to the end of a ``BasicBlock`` is so common that the ``Instruction``
  class and ``Instruction``-derived classes provide constructors which take a
  pointer to a ``BasicBlock`` to be appended to.  For example code that looked
  like:

  .. code-block:: c++

    BasicBlock *pb = ...;
    auto *newInst = new Instruction(...);

    pb->getInstList().push_back(newInst); // Appends newInst to pb

  becomes:

  .. code-block:: c++

    BasicBlock *pb = ...;
    auto *newInst = new Instruction(..., pb);

  which is much cleaner, especially if you are creating long instruction
  streams.

* Insertion into an implicit instruction list

  ``Instruction`` instances that are already in ``BasicBlock``\ s are implicitly
  associated with an existing instruction list: the instruction list of the
  enclosing basic block.  Thus, we could have accomplished the same thing as the
  above code without being given a ``BasicBlock`` by doing:

  .. code-block:: c++

    Instruction *pi = ...;
    auto *newInst = new Instruction(...);

    pi->getParent()->getInstList().insert(pi, newInst);

  In fact, this sequence of steps occurs so frequently that the ``Instruction``
  class and ``Instruction``-derived classes provide constructors which take (as
  a default parameter) a pointer to an ``Instruction`` which the newly-created
  ``Instruction`` should precede.  That is, ``Instruction`` constructors are
  capable of inserting the newly-created instance into the ``BasicBlock`` of a
  provided instruction, immediately before that instruction.  Using an
  ``Instruction`` constructor with a ``insertBefore`` (default) parameter, the
  above code becomes:

  .. code-block:: c++

    Instruction* pi = ...;
    auto *newInst = new Instruction(..., pi);

  which is much cleaner, especially if you're creating a lot of instructions and
  adding them to ``BasicBlock``\ s.

* Insertion using an instance of ``IRBuilder``

  Inserting several ``Instruction``\ s can be quite laborious using the previous
  methods. The ``IRBuilder`` is a convenience class that can be used to add
  several instructions to the end of a ``BasicBlock`` or before a particular
  ``Instruction``. It also supports constant folding and renaming named
  registers (see ``IRBuilder``'s template arguments).

  The example below demonstrates a very simple use of the ``IRBuilder`` where
  three instructions are inserted before the instruction ``pi``. The first two
  instructions are Call instructions and third instruction multiplies the return
  value of the two calls.

  .. code-block:: c++

    Instruction *pi = ...;
    IRBuilder<> Builder(pi);
    CallInst* callOne = Builder.CreateCall(...);
    CallInst* callTwo = Builder.CreateCall(...);
    Value* result = Builder.CreateMul(callOne, callTwo);

  The example below is similar to the above example except that the created
  ``IRBuilder`` inserts instructions at the end of the ``BasicBlock`` ``pb``.

  .. code-block:: c++

    BasicBlock *pb = ...;
    IRBuilder<> Builder(pb);
    CallInst* callOne = Builder.CreateCall(...);
    CallInst* callTwo = Builder.CreateCall(...);
    Value* result = Builder.CreateMul(callOne, callTwo);

  See :doc:`tutorial/LangImpl03` for a practical use of the ``IRBuilder``.


.. _schanges_deleting:

Deleting Instructions
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Deleting an instruction from an existing sequence of instructions that form a
BasicBlock_ is very straight-forward: just call the instruction's
``eraseFromParent()`` method.  For example:

.. code-block:: c++

  Instruction *I = .. ;
  I->eraseFromParent();

This unlinks the instruction from its containing basic block and deletes it.  If
you'd just like to unlink the instruction from its containing basic block but
not delete it, you can use the ``removeFromParent()`` method.

.. _schanges_replacing:

Replacing an Instruction with another Value
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Replacing individual instructions
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

Including "`llvm/Transforms/Utils/BasicBlockUtils.h
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/BasicBlockUtils_8h_source.html>`_" permits use of two
very useful replace functions: ``ReplaceInstWithValue`` and
``ReplaceInstWithInst``.

.. _schanges_deleting_sub:

Deleting Instructions
"""""""""""""""""""""

* ``ReplaceInstWithValue``

  This function replaces all uses of a given instruction with a value, and then
  removes the original instruction.  The following example illustrates the
  replacement of the result of a particular ``AllocaInst`` that allocates memory
  for a single integer with a null pointer to an integer.

  .. code-block:: c++

    AllocaInst* instToReplace = ...;
    BasicBlock::iterator ii(instToReplace);

    ReplaceInstWithValue(instToReplace->getParent()->getInstList(), ii,
                         Constant::getNullValue(PointerType::getUnqual(Type::Int32Ty)));

* ``ReplaceInstWithInst``

  This function replaces a particular instruction with another instruction,
  inserting the new instruction into the basic block at the location where the
  old instruction was, and replacing any uses of the old instruction with the
  new instruction.  The following example illustrates the replacement of one
  ``AllocaInst`` with another.

  .. code-block:: c++

    AllocaInst* instToReplace = ...;
    BasicBlock::iterator ii(instToReplace);

    ReplaceInstWithInst(instToReplace->getParent()->getInstList(), ii,
                        new AllocaInst(Type::Int32Ty, 0, "ptrToReplacedInt"));


Replacing multiple uses of Users and Values
"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

You can use ``Value::replaceAllUsesWith`` and ``User::replaceUsesOfWith`` to
change more than one use at a time.  See the doxygen documentation for the
`Value Class <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Value.html>`_ and `User Class
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1User.html>`_, respectively, for more
information.

.. _schanges_deletingGV:

Deleting GlobalVariables
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Deleting a global variable from a module is just as easy as deleting an
Instruction.  First, you must have a pointer to the global variable that you
wish to delete.  You use this pointer to erase it from its parent, the module.
For example:

.. code-block:: c++

  GlobalVariable *GV = .. ;

  GV->eraseFromParent();


.. _create_types:

How to Create Types
-------------------

In generating IR, you may need some complex types.  If you know these types
statically, you can use ``TypeBuilder<...>::get()``, defined in
``llvm/Support/TypeBuilder.h``, to retrieve them.  ``TypeBuilder`` has two forms
depending on whether you're building types for cross-compilation or native
library use.  ``TypeBuilder<T, true>`` requires that ``T`` be independent of the
host environment, meaning that it's built out of types from the ``llvm::types``
(`doxygen <http://llvm.org/doxygen/namespacellvm_1_1types.html>`__) namespace
and pointers, functions, arrays, etc. built of those.  ``TypeBuilder<T, false>``
additionally allows native C types whose size may depend on the host compiler.
For example,

.. code-block:: c++

  FunctionType *ft = TypeBuilder<types::i<8>(types::i<32>*), true>::get();

is easier to read and write than the equivalent

.. code-block:: c++

  std::vector<const Type*> params;
  params.push_back(PointerType::getUnqual(Type::Int32Ty));
  FunctionType *ft = FunctionType::get(Type::Int8Ty, params, false);

See the `class comment
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/TypeBuilder_8h_source.html#l00001>`_ for more details.

.. _threading:

Threads and LLVM
================

This section describes the interaction of the LLVM APIs with multithreading,
both on the part of client applications, and in the JIT, in the hosted
application.

Note that LLVM's support for multithreading is still relatively young.  Up
through version 2.5, the execution of threaded hosted applications was
supported, but not threaded client access to the APIs.  While this use case is
now supported, clients *must* adhere to the guidelines specified below to ensure
proper operation in multithreaded mode.

Note that, on Unix-like platforms, LLVM requires the presence of GCC's atomic
intrinsics in order to support threaded operation.  If you need a
multhreading-capable LLVM on a platform without a suitably modern system
compiler, consider compiling LLVM and LLVM-GCC in single-threaded mode, and
using the resultant compiler to build a copy of LLVM with multithreading
support.

.. _shutdown:

Ending Execution with ``llvm_shutdown()``
-----------------------------------------

When you are done using the LLVM APIs, you should call ``llvm_shutdown()`` to
deallocate memory used for internal structures.

.. _managedstatic:

Lazy Initialization with ``ManagedStatic``
------------------------------------------

``ManagedStatic`` is a utility class in LLVM used to implement static
initialization of static resources, such as the global type tables.  In a
single-threaded environment, it implements a simple lazy initialization scheme.
When LLVM is compiled with support for multi-threading, however, it uses
double-checked locking to implement thread-safe lazy initialization.

.. _llvmcontext:

Achieving Isolation with ``LLVMContext``
----------------------------------------

``LLVMContext`` is an opaque class in the LLVM API which clients can use to
operate multiple, isolated instances of LLVM concurrently within the same
address space.  For instance, in a hypothetical compile-server, the compilation
of an individual translation unit is conceptually independent from all the
others, and it would be desirable to be able to compile incoming translation
units concurrently on independent server threads.  Fortunately, ``LLVMContext``
exists to enable just this kind of scenario!

Conceptually, ``LLVMContext`` provides isolation.  Every LLVM entity
(``Module``\ s, ``Value``\ s, ``Type``\ s, ``Constant``\ s, etc.) in LLVM's
in-memory IR belongs to an ``LLVMContext``.  Entities in different contexts
*cannot* interact with each other: ``Module``\ s in different contexts cannot be
linked together, ``Function``\ s cannot be added to ``Module``\ s in different
contexts, etc.  What this means is that is is safe to compile on multiple
threads simultaneously, as long as no two threads operate on entities within the
same context.

In practice, very few places in the API require the explicit specification of a
``LLVMContext``, other than the ``Type`` creation/lookup APIs.  Because every
``Type`` carries a reference to its owning context, most other entities can
determine what context they belong to by looking at their own ``Type``.  If you
are adding new entities to LLVM IR, please try to maintain this interface
design.

.. _jitthreading:

Threads and the JIT
-------------------

LLVM's "eager" JIT compiler is safe to use in threaded programs.  Multiple
threads can call ``ExecutionEngine::getPointerToFunction()`` or
``ExecutionEngine::runFunction()`` concurrently, and multiple threads can run
code output by the JIT concurrently.  The user must still ensure that only one
thread accesses IR in a given ``LLVMContext`` while another thread might be
modifying it.  One way to do that is to always hold the JIT lock while accessing
IR outside the JIT (the JIT *modifies* the IR by adding ``CallbackVH``\ s).
Another way is to only call ``getPointerToFunction()`` from the
``LLVMContext``'s thread.

When the JIT is configured to compile lazily (using
``ExecutionEngine::DisableLazyCompilation(false)``), there is currently a `race
condition <https://bugs.llvm.org/show_bug.cgi?id=5184>`_ in updating call sites
after a function is lazily-jitted.  It's still possible to use the lazy JIT in a
threaded program if you ensure that only one thread at a time can call any
particular lazy stub and that the JIT lock guards any IR access, but we suggest
using only the eager JIT in threaded programs.

.. _advanced:

Advanced Topics
===============

This section describes some of the advanced or obscure API's that most clients
do not need to be aware of.  These API's tend manage the inner workings of the
LLVM system, and only need to be accessed in unusual circumstances.

.. _SymbolTable:

The ``ValueSymbolTable`` class
------------------------------

The ``ValueSymbolTable`` (`doxygen
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1ValueSymbolTable.html>`__) class provides
a symbol table that the :ref:`Function <c_Function>` and Module_ classes use for
naming value definitions.  The symbol table can provide a name for any Value_.

Note that the ``SymbolTable`` class should not be directly accessed by most
clients.  It should only be used when iteration over the symbol table names
themselves are required, which is very special purpose.  Note that not all LLVM
Value_\ s have names, and those without names (i.e. they have an empty name) do
not exist in the symbol table.

Symbol tables support iteration over the values in the symbol table with
``begin/end/iterator`` and supports querying to see if a specific name is in the
symbol table (with ``lookup``).  The ``ValueSymbolTable`` class exposes no
public mutator methods, instead, simply call ``setName`` on a value, which will
autoinsert it into the appropriate symbol table.

.. _UserLayout:

The ``User`` and owned ``Use`` classes' memory layout
-----------------------------------------------------

The ``User`` (`doxygen <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1User.html>`__)
class provides a basis for expressing the ownership of ``User`` towards other
`Value instance <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Value.html>`_\ s.  The
``Use`` (`doxygen <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Use.html>`__) helper
class is employed to do the bookkeeping and to facilitate *O(1)* addition and
removal.

.. _Use2User:

Interaction and relationship between ``User`` and ``Use`` objects
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

A subclass of ``User`` can choose between incorporating its ``Use`` objects or
refer to them out-of-line by means of a pointer.  A mixed variant (some ``Use``
s inline others hung off) is impractical and breaks the invariant that the
``Use`` objects belonging to the same ``User`` form a contiguous array.

We have 2 different layouts in the ``User`` (sub)classes:

* Layout a)

  The ``Use`` object(s) are inside (resp. at fixed offset) of the ``User``
  object and there are a fixed number of them.

* Layout b)

  The ``Use`` object(s) are referenced by a pointer to an array from the
  ``User`` object and there may be a variable number of them.

As of v2.4 each layout still possesses a direct pointer to the start of the
array of ``Use``\ s.  Though not mandatory for layout a), we stick to this
redundancy for the sake of simplicity.  The ``User`` object also stores the
number of ``Use`` objects it has. (Theoretically this information can also be
calculated given the scheme presented below.)

Special forms of allocation operators (``operator new``) enforce the following
memory layouts:

* Layout a) is modelled by prepending the ``User`` object by the ``Use[]``
  array.

  .. code-block:: none

    ...---.---.---.---.-------...
      | P | P | P | P | User
    '''---'---'---'---'-------'''

* Layout b) is modelled by pointing at the ``Use[]`` array.

  .. code-block:: none

    .-------...
    | User
    '-------'''
        |
        v
        .---.---.---.---...
        | P | P | P | P |
        '---'---'---'---'''

*(In the above figures* '``P``' *stands for the* ``Use**`` *that is stored in
each* ``Use`` *object in the member* ``Use::Prev`` *)*

.. _Waymarking:

The waymarking algorithm
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Since the ``Use`` objects are deprived of the direct (back)pointer to their
``User`` objects, there must be a fast and exact method to recover it.  This is
accomplished by the following scheme:

A bit-encoding in the 2 LSBits (least significant bits) of the ``Use::Prev``
allows to find the start of the ``User`` object:

* ``00`` --- binary digit 0

* ``01`` --- binary digit 1

* ``10`` --- stop and calculate (``s``)

* ``11`` --- full stop (``S``)

Given a ``Use*``, all we have to do is to walk till we get a stop and we either
have a ``User`` immediately behind or we have to walk to the next stop picking
up digits and calculating the offset:

.. code-block:: none

  .---.---.---.---.---.---.---.---.---.---.---.---.---.---.---.---.----------------
  | 1 | s | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | s | 1 | 1 | 0 | s | 1 | 1 | s | 1 | S | User (or User*)
  '---'---'---'---'---'---'---'---'---'---'---'---'---'---'---'---'----------------
      |+15                |+10            |+6         |+3     |+1
      |                   |               |           |       | __>
      |                   |               |           | __________>
      |                   |               | ______________________>
      |                   | ______________________________________>
      | __________________________________________________________>

Only the significant number of bits need to be stored between the stops, so that
the *worst case is 20 memory accesses* when there are 1000 ``Use`` objects
associated with a ``User``.

.. _ReferenceImpl:

Reference implementation
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The following literate Haskell fragment demonstrates the concept:

.. code-block:: haskell

  > import Test.QuickCheck
  >
  > digits :: Int -> [Char] -> [Char]
  > digits 0 acc = '0' : acc
  > digits 1 acc = '1' : acc
  > digits n acc = digits (n `div` 2) $ digits (n `mod` 2) acc
  >
  > dist :: Int -> [Char] -> [Char]
  > dist 0 [] = ['S']
  > dist 0 acc = acc
  > dist 1 acc = let r = dist 0 acc in 's' : digits (length r) r
  > dist n acc = dist (n - 1) $ dist 1 acc
  >
  > takeLast n ss = reverse $ take n $ reverse ss
  >
  > test = takeLast 40 $ dist 20 []
  >

Printing <test> gives: ``"1s100000s11010s10100s1111s1010s110s11s1S"``

The reverse algorithm computes the length of the string just by examining a
certain prefix:

.. code-block:: haskell

  > pref :: [Char] -> Int
  > pref "S" = 1
  > pref ('s':'1':rest) = decode 2 1 rest
  > pref (_:rest) = 1 + pref rest
  >
  > decode walk acc ('0':rest) = decode (walk + 1) (acc * 2) rest
  > decode walk acc ('1':rest) = decode (walk + 1) (acc * 2 + 1) rest
  > decode walk acc _ = walk + acc
  >

Now, as expected, printing <pref test> gives ``40``.

We can *quickCheck* this with following property:

.. code-block:: haskell

  > testcase = dist 2000 []
  > testcaseLength = length testcase
  >
  > identityProp n = n > 0 && n <= testcaseLength ==> length arr == pref arr
  >     where arr = takeLast n testcase
  >

As expected <quickCheck identityProp> gives:

::

  *Main> quickCheck identityProp
  OK, passed 100 tests.

Let's be a bit more exhaustive:

.. code-block:: haskell

  >
  > deepCheck p = check (defaultConfig { configMaxTest = 500 }) p
  >

And here is the result of <deepCheck identityProp>:

::

  *Main> deepCheck identityProp
  OK, passed 500 tests.

.. _Tagging:

Tagging considerations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

To maintain the invariant that the 2 LSBits of each ``Use**`` in ``Use`` never
change after being set up, setters of ``Use::Prev`` must re-tag the new
``Use**`` on every modification.  Accordingly getters must strip the tag bits.

For layout b) instead of the ``User`` we find a pointer (``User*`` with LSBit
set).  Following this pointer brings us to the ``User``.  A portable trick
ensures that the first bytes of ``User`` (if interpreted as a pointer) never has
the LSBit set. (Portability is relying on the fact that all known compilers
place the ``vptr`` in the first word of the instances.)

.. _polymorphism:

Designing Type Hiercharies and Polymorphic Interfaces
-----------------------------------------------------

There are two different design patterns that tend to result in the use of
virtual dispatch for methods in a type hierarchy in C++ programs. The first is
a genuine type hierarchy where different types in the hierarchy model
a specific subset of the functionality and semantics, and these types nest
strictly within each other. Good examples of this can be seen in the ``Value``
or ``Type`` type hierarchies.

A second is the desire to dispatch dynamically across a collection of
polymorphic interface implementations. This latter use case can be modeled with
virtual dispatch and inheritance by defining an abstract interface base class
which all implementations derive from and override. However, this
implementation strategy forces an **"is-a"** relationship to exist that is not
actually meaningful. There is often not some nested hierarchy of useful
generalizations which code might interact with and move up and down. Instead,
there is a singular interface which is dispatched across a range of
implementations.

The preferred implementation strategy for the second use case is that of
generic programming (sometimes called "compile-time duck typing" or "static
polymorphism"). For example, a template over some type parameter ``T`` can be
instantiated across any particular implementation that conforms to the
interface or *concept*. A good example here is the highly generic properties of
any type which models a node in a directed graph. LLVM models these primarily
through templates and generic programming. Such templates include the
``LoopInfoBase`` and ``DominatorTreeBase``. When this type of polymorphism
truly needs **dynamic** dispatch you can generalize it using a technique
called *concept-based polymorphism*. This pattern emulates the interfaces and
behaviors of templates using a very limited form of virtual dispatch for type
erasure inside its implementation. You can find examples of this technique in
the ``PassManager.h`` system, and there is a more detailed introduction to it
by Sean Parent in several of his talks and papers:

#. `Inheritance Is The Base Class of Evil
   <http://channel9.msdn.com/Events/GoingNative/2013/Inheritance-Is-The-Base-Class-of-Evil>`_
   - The GoingNative 2013 talk describing this technique, and probably the best
   place to start.
#. `Value Semantics and Concepts-based Polymorphism
   <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_BpMYeUFXv8>`_ - The C++Now! 2012 talk
   describing this technique in more detail.
#. `Sean Parent's Papers and Presentations
   <http://github.com/sean-parent/sean-parent.github.com/wiki/Papers-and-Presentations>`_
   - A Github project full of links to slides, video, and sometimes code.

When deciding between creating a type hierarchy (with either tagged or virtual
dispatch) and using templates or concepts-based polymorphism, consider whether
there is some refinement of an abstract base class which is a semantically
meaningful type on an interface boundary. If anything more refined than the
root abstract interface is meaningless to talk about as a partial extension of
the semantic model, then your use case likely fits better with polymorphism and
you should avoid using virtual dispatch. However, there may be some exigent
circumstances that require one technique or the other to be used.

If you do need to introduce a type hierarchy, we prefer to use explicitly
closed type hierarchies with manual tagged dispatch and/or RTTI rather than the
open inheritance model and virtual dispatch that is more common in C++ code.
This is because LLVM rarely encourages library consumers to extend its core
types, and leverages the closed and tag-dispatched nature of its hierarchies to
generate significantly more efficient code. We have also found that a large
amount of our usage of type hierarchies fits better with tag-based pattern
matching rather than dynamic dispatch across a common interface. Within LLVM we
have built custom helpers to facilitate this design. See this document's
section on :ref:`isa and dyn_cast <isa>` and our :doc:`detailed document
<HowToSetUpLLVMStyleRTTI>` which describes how you can implement this
pattern for use with the LLVM helpers.

.. _abi_breaking_checks:

ABI Breaking Checks
-------------------

Checks and asserts that alter the LLVM C++ ABI are predicated on the
preprocessor symbol `LLVM_ENABLE_ABI_BREAKING_CHECKS` -- LLVM
libraries built with `LLVM_ENABLE_ABI_BREAKING_CHECKS` are not ABI
compatible LLVM libraries built without it defined.  By default,
turning on assertions also turns on `LLVM_ENABLE_ABI_BREAKING_CHECKS`
so a default +Asserts build is not ABI compatible with a
default -Asserts build.  Clients that want ABI compatibility
between +Asserts and -Asserts builds should use the CMake or autoconf
build systems to set `LLVM_ENABLE_ABI_BREAKING_CHECKS` independently
of `LLVM_ENABLE_ASSERTIONS`.

.. _coreclasses:

The Core LLVM Class Hierarchy Reference
=======================================

``#include "llvm/IR/Type.h"``

header source: `Type.h <http://llvm.org/doxygen/Type_8h_source.html>`_

doxygen info: `Type Clases <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Type.html>`_

The Core LLVM classes are the primary means of representing the program being
inspected or transformed.  The core LLVM classes are defined in header files in
the ``include/llvm/IR`` directory, and implemented in the ``lib/IR``
directory. It's worth noting that, for historical reasons, this library is
called ``libLLVMCore.so``, not ``libLLVMIR.so`` as you might expect.

.. _Type:

The Type class and Derived Types
--------------------------------

``Type`` is a superclass of all type classes.  Every ``Value`` has a ``Type``.
``Type`` cannot be instantiated directly but only through its subclasses.
Certain primitive types (``VoidType``, ``LabelType``, ``FloatType`` and
``DoubleType``) have hidden subclasses.  They are hidden because they offer no
useful functionality beyond what the ``Type`` class offers except to distinguish
themselves from other subclasses of ``Type``.

All other types are subclasses of ``DerivedType``.  Types can be named, but this
is not a requirement.  There exists exactly one instance of a given shape at any
one time.  This allows type equality to be performed with address equality of
the Type Instance.  That is, given two ``Type*`` values, the types are identical
if the pointers are identical.

.. _m_Type:

Important Public Methods
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* ``bool isIntegerTy() const``: Returns true for any integer type.

* ``bool isFloatingPointTy()``: Return true if this is one of the five
  floating point types.

* ``bool isSized()``: Return true if the type has known size.  Things
  that don't have a size are abstract types, labels and void.

.. _derivedtypes:

Important Derived Types
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``IntegerType``
  Subclass of DerivedType that represents integer types of any bit width.  Any
  bit width between ``IntegerType::MIN_INT_BITS`` (1) and
  ``IntegerType::MAX_INT_BITS`` (~8 million) can be represented.

  * ``static const IntegerType* get(unsigned NumBits)``: get an integer
    type of a specific bit width.

  * ``unsigned getBitWidth() const``: Get the bit width of an integer type.

``SequentialType``
  This is subclassed by ArrayType and VectorType.

  * ``const Type * getElementType() const``: Returns the type of each
    of the elements in the sequential type.

  * ``uint64_t getNumElements() const``: Returns the number of elements
    in the sequential type.

``ArrayType``
  This is a subclass of SequentialType and defines the interface for array
  types.

``PointerType``
  Subclass of Type for pointer types.

``VectorType``
  Subclass of SequentialType for vector types.  A vector type is similar to an
  ArrayType but is distinguished because it is a first class type whereas
  ArrayType is not.  Vector types are used for vector operations and are usually
  small vectors of an integer or floating point type.

``StructType``
  Subclass of DerivedTypes for struct types.

.. _FunctionType:

``FunctionType``
  Subclass of DerivedTypes for function types.

  * ``bool isVarArg() const``: Returns true if it's a vararg function.

  * ``const Type * getReturnType() const``: Returns the return type of the
    function.

  * ``const Type * getParamType (unsigned i)``: Returns the type of the ith
    parameter.

  * ``const unsigned getNumParams() const``: Returns the number of formal
    parameters.

.. _Module:

The ``Module`` class
--------------------

``#include "llvm/IR/Module.h"``

header source: `Module.h <http://llvm.org/doxygen/Module_8h_source.html>`_

doxygen info: `Module Class <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Module.html>`_

The ``Module`` class represents the top level structure present in LLVM
programs.  An LLVM module is effectively either a translation unit of the
original program or a combination of several translation units merged by the
linker.  The ``Module`` class keeps track of a list of :ref:`Function
<c_Function>`\ s, a list of GlobalVariable_\ s, and a SymbolTable_.
Additionally, it contains a few helpful member functions that try to make common
operations easy.

.. _m_Module:

Important Public Members of the ``Module`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* ``Module::Module(std::string name = "")``

  Constructing a Module_ is easy.  You can optionally provide a name for it
  (probably based on the name of the translation unit).

* | ``Module::iterator`` - Typedef for function list iterator
  | ``Module::const_iterator`` - Typedef for const_iterator.
  | ``begin()``, ``end()``, ``size()``, ``empty()``

  These are forwarding methods that make it easy to access the contents of a
  ``Module`` object's :ref:`Function <c_Function>` list.

* ``Module::FunctionListType &getFunctionList()``

  Returns the list of :ref:`Function <c_Function>`\ s.  This is necessary to use
  when you need to update the list or perform a complex action that doesn't have
  a forwarding method.

----------------

* | ``Module::global_iterator`` - Typedef for global variable list iterator
  | ``Module::const_global_iterator`` - Typedef for const_iterator.
  | ``global_begin()``, ``global_end()``, ``global_size()``, ``global_empty()``

  These are forwarding methods that make it easy to access the contents of a
  ``Module`` object's GlobalVariable_ list.

* ``Module::GlobalListType &getGlobalList()``

  Returns the list of GlobalVariable_\ s.  This is necessary to use when you
  need to update the list or perform a complex action that doesn't have a
  forwarding method.

----------------

* ``SymbolTable *getSymbolTable()``

  Return a reference to the SymbolTable_ for this ``Module``.

----------------

* ``Function *getFunction(StringRef Name) const``

  Look up the specified function in the ``Module`` SymbolTable_.  If it does not
  exist, return ``null``.

* ``Function *getOrInsertFunction(const std::string &Name, const FunctionType
  *T)``

  Look up the specified function in the ``Module`` SymbolTable_.  If it does not
  exist, add an external declaration for the function and return it.

* ``std::string getTypeName(const Type *Ty)``

  If there is at least one entry in the SymbolTable_ for the specified Type_,
  return it.  Otherwise return the empty string.

* ``bool addTypeName(const std::string &Name, const Type *Ty)``

  Insert an entry in the SymbolTable_ mapping ``Name`` to ``Ty``.  If there is
  already an entry for this name, true is returned and the SymbolTable_ is not
  modified.

.. _Value:

The ``Value`` class
-------------------

``#include "llvm/IR/Value.h"``

header source: `Value.h <http://llvm.org/doxygen/Value_8h_source.html>`_

doxygen info: `Value Class <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Value.html>`_

The ``Value`` class is the most important class in the LLVM Source base.  It
represents a typed value that may be used (among other things) as an operand to
an instruction.  There are many different types of ``Value``\ s, such as
Constant_\ s, Argument_\ s.  Even Instruction_\ s and :ref:`Function
<c_Function>`\ s are ``Value``\ s.

A particular ``Value`` may be used many times in the LLVM representation for a
program.  For example, an incoming argument to a function (represented with an
instance of the Argument_ class) is "used" by every instruction in the function
that references the argument.  To keep track of this relationship, the ``Value``
class keeps a list of all of the ``User``\ s that is using it (the User_ class
is a base class for all nodes in the LLVM graph that can refer to ``Value``\ s).
This use list is how LLVM represents def-use information in the program, and is
accessible through the ``use_*`` methods, shown below.

Because LLVM is a typed representation, every LLVM ``Value`` is typed, and this
Type_ is available through the ``getType()`` method.  In addition, all LLVM
values can be named.  The "name" of the ``Value`` is a symbolic string printed
in the LLVM code:

.. code-block:: llvm

  %foo = add i32 1, 2

.. _nameWarning:

The name of this instruction is "foo". **NOTE** that the name of any value may
be missing (an empty string), so names should **ONLY** be used for debugging
(making the source code easier to read, debugging printouts), they should not be
used to keep track of values or map between them.  For this purpose, use a
``std::map`` of pointers to the ``Value`` itself instead.

One important aspect of LLVM is that there is no distinction between an SSA
variable and the operation that produces it.  Because of this, any reference to
the value produced by an instruction (or the value available as an incoming
argument, for example) is represented as a direct pointer to the instance of the
class that represents this value.  Although this may take some getting used to,
it simplifies the representation and makes it easier to manipulate.

.. _m_Value:

Important Public Members of the ``Value`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* | ``Value::use_iterator`` - Typedef for iterator over the use-list
  | ``Value::const_use_iterator`` - Typedef for const_iterator over the
    use-list
  | ``unsigned use_size()`` - Returns the number of users of the value.
  | ``bool use_empty()`` - Returns true if there are no users.
  | ``use_iterator use_begin()`` - Get an iterator to the start of the
    use-list.
  | ``use_iterator use_end()`` - Get an iterator to the end of the use-list.
  | ``User *use_back()`` - Returns the last element in the list.

  These methods are the interface to access the def-use information in LLVM.
  As with all other iterators in LLVM, the naming conventions follow the
  conventions defined by the STL_.

* ``Type *getType() const``
  This method returns the Type of the Value.

* | ``bool hasName() const``
  | ``std::string getName() const``
  | ``void setName(const std::string &Name)``

  This family of methods is used to access and assign a name to a ``Value``, be
  aware of the :ref:`precaution above <nameWarning>`.

* ``void replaceAllUsesWith(Value *V)``

  This method traverses the use list of a ``Value`` changing all User_\ s of the
  current value to refer to "``V``" instead.  For example, if you detect that an
  instruction always produces a constant value (for example through constant
  folding), you can replace all uses of the instruction with the constant like
  this:

  .. code-block:: c++

    Inst->replaceAllUsesWith(ConstVal);

.. _User:

The ``User`` class
------------------

``#include "llvm/IR/User.h"``

header source: `User.h <http://llvm.org/doxygen/User_8h_source.html>`_

doxygen info: `User Class <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1User.html>`_

Superclass: Value_

The ``User`` class is the common base class of all LLVM nodes that may refer to
``Value``\ s.  It exposes a list of "Operands" that are all of the ``Value``\ s
that the User is referring to.  The ``User`` class itself is a subclass of
``Value``.

The operands of a ``User`` point directly to the LLVM ``Value`` that it refers
to.  Because LLVM uses Static Single Assignment (SSA) form, there can only be
one definition referred to, allowing this direct connection.  This connection
provides the use-def information in LLVM.

.. _m_User:

Important Public Members of the ``User`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The ``User`` class exposes the operand list in two ways: through an index access
interface and through an iterator based interface.

* | ``Value *getOperand(unsigned i)``
  | ``unsigned getNumOperands()``

  These two methods expose the operands of the ``User`` in a convenient form for
  direct access.

* | ``User::op_iterator`` - Typedef for iterator over the operand list
  | ``op_iterator op_begin()`` - Get an iterator to the start of the operand
    list.
  | ``op_iterator op_end()`` - Get an iterator to the end of the operand list.

  Together, these methods make up the iterator based interface to the operands
  of a ``User``.


.. _Instruction:

The ``Instruction`` class
-------------------------

``#include "llvm/IR/Instruction.h"``

header source: `Instruction.h
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/Instruction_8h_source.html>`_

doxygen info: `Instruction Class
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Instruction.html>`_

Superclasses: User_, Value_

The ``Instruction`` class is the common base class for all LLVM instructions.
It provides only a few methods, but is a very commonly used class.  The primary
data tracked by the ``Instruction`` class itself is the opcode (instruction
type) and the parent BasicBlock_ the ``Instruction`` is embedded into.  To
represent a specific type of instruction, one of many subclasses of
``Instruction`` are used.

Because the ``Instruction`` class subclasses the User_ class, its operands can
be accessed in the same way as for other ``User``\ s (with the
``getOperand()``/``getNumOperands()`` and ``op_begin()``/``op_end()`` methods).
An important file for the ``Instruction`` class is the ``llvm/Instruction.def``
file.  This file contains some meta-data about the various different types of
instructions in LLVM.  It describes the enum values that are used as opcodes
(for example ``Instruction::Add`` and ``Instruction::ICmp``), as well as the
concrete sub-classes of ``Instruction`` that implement the instruction (for
example BinaryOperator_ and CmpInst_).  Unfortunately, the use of macros in this
file confuses doxygen, so these enum values don't show up correctly in the
`doxygen output <http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Instruction.html>`_.

.. _s_Instruction:

Important Subclasses of the ``Instruction`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

.. _BinaryOperator:

* ``BinaryOperator``

  This subclasses represents all two operand instructions whose operands must be
  the same type, except for the comparison instructions.

.. _CastInst:

* ``CastInst``
  This subclass is the parent of the 12 casting instructions.  It provides
  common operations on cast instructions.

.. _CmpInst:

* ``CmpInst``

  This subclass respresents the two comparison instructions,
  `ICmpInst <LangRef.html#i_icmp>`_ (integer opreands), and
  `FCmpInst <LangRef.html#i_fcmp>`_ (floating point operands).

.. _TerminatorInst:

* ``TerminatorInst``

  This subclass is the parent of all terminator instructions (those which can
  terminate a block).

.. _m_Instruction:

Important Public Members of the ``Instruction`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* ``BasicBlock *getParent()``

  Returns the BasicBlock_ that this
  ``Instruction`` is embedded into.

* ``bool mayWriteToMemory()``

  Returns true if the instruction writes to memory, i.e. it is a ``call``,
  ``free``, ``invoke``, or ``store``.

* ``unsigned getOpcode()``

  Returns the opcode for the ``Instruction``.

* ``Instruction *clone() const``

  Returns another instance of the specified instruction, identical in all ways
  to the original except that the instruction has no parent (i.e. it's not
  embedded into a BasicBlock_), and it has no name.

.. _Constant:

The ``Constant`` class and subclasses
-------------------------------------

Constant represents a base class for different types of constants.  It is
subclassed by ConstantInt, ConstantArray, etc. for representing the various
types of Constants.  GlobalValue_ is also a subclass, which represents the
address of a global variable or function.

.. _s_Constant:

Important Subclasses of Constant
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* ConstantInt : This subclass of Constant represents an integer constant of
  any width.

  * ``const APInt& getValue() const``: Returns the underlying
    value of this constant, an APInt value.

  * ``int64_t getSExtValue() const``: Converts the underlying APInt value to an
    int64_t via sign extension.  If the value (not the bit width) of the APInt
    is too large to fit in an int64_t, an assertion will result.  For this
    reason, use of this method is discouraged.

  * ``uint64_t getZExtValue() const``: Converts the underlying APInt value
    to a uint64_t via zero extension.  IF the value (not the bit width) of the
    APInt is too large to fit in a uint64_t, an assertion will result.  For this
    reason, use of this method is discouraged.

  * ``static ConstantInt* get(const APInt& Val)``: Returns the ConstantInt
    object that represents the value provided by ``Val``.  The type is implied
    as the IntegerType that corresponds to the bit width of ``Val``.

  * ``static ConstantInt* get(const Type *Ty, uint64_t Val)``: Returns the
    ConstantInt object that represents the value provided by ``Val`` for integer
    type ``Ty``.

* ConstantFP : This class represents a floating point constant.

  * ``double getValue() const``: Returns the underlying value of this constant.

* ConstantArray : This represents a constant array.

  * ``const std::vector<Use> &getValues() const``: Returns a vector of
    component constants that makeup this array.

* ConstantStruct : This represents a constant struct.

  * ``const std::vector<Use> &getValues() const``: Returns a vector of
    component constants that makeup this array.

* GlobalValue : This represents either a global variable or a function.  In
  either case, the value is a constant fixed address (after linking).

.. _GlobalValue:

The ``GlobalValue`` class
-------------------------

``#include "llvm/IR/GlobalValue.h"``

header source: `GlobalValue.h
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/GlobalValue_8h_source.html>`_

doxygen info: `GlobalValue Class
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1GlobalValue.html>`_

Superclasses: Constant_, User_, Value_

Global values ( GlobalVariable_\ s or :ref:`Function <c_Function>`\ s) are the
only LLVM values that are visible in the bodies of all :ref:`Function
<c_Function>`\ s.  Because they are visible at global scope, they are also
subject to linking with other globals defined in different translation units.
To control the linking process, ``GlobalValue``\ s know their linkage rules.
Specifically, ``GlobalValue``\ s know whether they have internal or external
linkage, as defined by the ``LinkageTypes`` enumeration.

If a ``GlobalValue`` has internal linkage (equivalent to being ``static`` in C),
it is not visible to code outside the current translation unit, and does not
participate in linking.  If it has external linkage, it is visible to external
code, and does participate in linking.  In addition to linkage information,
``GlobalValue``\ s keep track of which Module_ they are currently part of.

Because ``GlobalValue``\ s are memory objects, they are always referred to by
their **address**.  As such, the Type_ of a global is always a pointer to its
contents.  It is important to remember this when using the ``GetElementPtrInst``
instruction because this pointer must be dereferenced first.  For example, if
you have a ``GlobalVariable`` (a subclass of ``GlobalValue)`` that is an array
of 24 ints, type ``[24 x i32]``, then the ``GlobalVariable`` is a pointer to
that array.  Although the address of the first element of this array and the
value of the ``GlobalVariable`` are the same, they have different types.  The
``GlobalVariable``'s type is ``[24 x i32]``.  The first element's type is
``i32.`` Because of this, accessing a global value requires you to dereference
the pointer with ``GetElementPtrInst`` first, then its elements can be accessed.
This is explained in the `LLVM Language Reference Manual
<LangRef.html#globalvars>`_.

.. _m_GlobalValue:

Important Public Members of the ``GlobalValue`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* | ``bool hasInternalLinkage() const``
  | ``bool hasExternalLinkage() const``
  | ``void setInternalLinkage(bool HasInternalLinkage)``

  These methods manipulate the linkage characteristics of the ``GlobalValue``.

* ``Module *getParent()``

  This returns the Module_ that the
  GlobalValue is currently embedded into.

.. _c_Function:

The ``Function`` class
----------------------

``#include "llvm/IR/Function.h"``

header source: `Function.h <http://llvm.org/doxygen/Function_8h_source.html>`_

doxygen info: `Function Class
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1Function.html>`_

Superclasses: GlobalValue_, Constant_, User_, Value_

The ``Function`` class represents a single procedure in LLVM.  It is actually
one of the more complex classes in the LLVM hierarchy because it must keep track
of a large amount of data.  The ``Function`` class keeps track of a list of
BasicBlock_\ s, a list of formal Argument_\ s, and a SymbolTable_.

The list of BasicBlock_\ s is the most commonly used part of ``Function``
objects.  The list imposes an implicit ordering of the blocks in the function,
which indicate how the code will be laid out by the backend.  Additionally, the
first BasicBlock_ is the implicit entry node for the ``Function``.  It is not
legal in LLVM to explicitly branch to this initial block.  There are no implicit
exit nodes, and in fact there may be multiple exit nodes from a single
``Function``.  If the BasicBlock_ list is empty, this indicates that the
``Function`` is actually a function declaration: the actual body of the function
hasn't been linked in yet.

In addition to a list of BasicBlock_\ s, the ``Function`` class also keeps track
of the list of formal Argument_\ s that the function receives.  This container
manages the lifetime of the Argument_ nodes, just like the BasicBlock_ list does
for the BasicBlock_\ s.

The SymbolTable_ is a very rarely used LLVM feature that is only used when you
have to look up a value by name.  Aside from that, the SymbolTable_ is used
internally to make sure that there are not conflicts between the names of
Instruction_\ s, BasicBlock_\ s, or Argument_\ s in the function body.

Note that ``Function`` is a GlobalValue_ and therefore also a Constant_.  The
value of the function is its address (after linking) which is guaranteed to be
constant.

.. _m_Function:

Important Public Members of the ``Function``
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* ``Function(const FunctionType *Ty, LinkageTypes Linkage,
  const std::string &N = "", Module* Parent = 0)``

  Constructor used when you need to create new ``Function``\ s to add the
  program.  The constructor must specify the type of the function to create and
  what type of linkage the function should have.  The FunctionType_ argument
  specifies the formal arguments and return value for the function.  The same
  FunctionType_ value can be used to create multiple functions.  The ``Parent``
  argument specifies the Module in which the function is defined.  If this
  argument is provided, the function will automatically be inserted into that
  module's list of functions.

* ``bool isDeclaration()``

  Return whether or not the ``Function`` has a body defined.  If the function is
  "external", it does not have a body, and thus must be resolved by linking with
  a function defined in a different translation unit.

* | ``Function::iterator`` - Typedef for basic block list iterator
  | ``Function::const_iterator`` - Typedef for const_iterator.
  | ``begin()``, ``end()``, ``size()``, ``empty()``

  These are forwarding methods that make it easy to access the contents of a
  ``Function`` object's BasicBlock_ list.

* ``Function::BasicBlockListType &getBasicBlockList()``

  Returns the list of BasicBlock_\ s.  This is necessary to use when you need to
  update the list or perform a complex action that doesn't have a forwarding
  method.

* | ``Function::arg_iterator`` - Typedef for the argument list iterator
  | ``Function::const_arg_iterator`` - Typedef for const_iterator.
  | ``arg_begin()``, ``arg_end()``, ``arg_size()``, ``arg_empty()``

  These are forwarding methods that make it easy to access the contents of a
  ``Function`` object's Argument_ list.

* ``Function::ArgumentListType &getArgumentList()``

  Returns the list of Argument_.  This is necessary to use when you need to
  update the list or perform a complex action that doesn't have a forwarding
  method.

* ``BasicBlock &getEntryBlock()``

  Returns the entry ``BasicBlock`` for the function.  Because the entry block
  for the function is always the first block, this returns the first block of
  the ``Function``.

* | ``Type *getReturnType()``
  | ``FunctionType *getFunctionType()``

  This traverses the Type_ of the ``Function`` and returns the return type of
  the function, or the FunctionType_ of the actual function.

* ``SymbolTable *getSymbolTable()``

  Return a pointer to the SymbolTable_ for this ``Function``.

.. _GlobalVariable:

The ``GlobalVariable`` class
----------------------------

``#include "llvm/IR/GlobalVariable.h"``

header source: `GlobalVariable.h
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/GlobalVariable_8h_source.html>`_

doxygen info: `GlobalVariable Class
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1GlobalVariable.html>`_

Superclasses: GlobalValue_, Constant_, User_, Value_

Global variables are represented with the (surprise surprise) ``GlobalVariable``
class.  Like functions, ``GlobalVariable``\ s are also subclasses of
GlobalValue_, and as such are always referenced by their address (global values
must live in memory, so their "name" refers to their constant address).  See
GlobalValue_ for more on this.  Global variables may have an initial value
(which must be a Constant_), and if they have an initializer, they may be marked
as "constant" themselves (indicating that their contents never change at
runtime).

.. _m_GlobalVariable:

Important Public Members of the ``GlobalVariable`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* ``GlobalVariable(const Type *Ty, bool isConstant, LinkageTypes &Linkage,
  Constant *Initializer = 0, const std::string &Name = "", Module* Parent = 0)``

  Create a new global variable of the specified type.  If ``isConstant`` is true
  then the global variable will be marked as unchanging for the program.  The
  Linkage parameter specifies the type of linkage (internal, external, weak,
  linkonce, appending) for the variable.  If the linkage is InternalLinkage,
  WeakAnyLinkage, WeakODRLinkage, LinkOnceAnyLinkage or LinkOnceODRLinkage, then
  the resultant global variable will have internal linkage.  AppendingLinkage
  concatenates together all instances (in different translation units) of the
  variable into a single variable but is only applicable to arrays.  See the
  `LLVM Language Reference <LangRef.html#modulestructure>`_ for further details
  on linkage types.  Optionally an initializer, a name, and the module to put
  the variable into may be specified for the global variable as well.

* ``bool isConstant() const``

  Returns true if this is a global variable that is known not to be modified at
  runtime.

* ``bool hasInitializer()``

  Returns true if this ``GlobalVariable`` has an intializer.

* ``Constant *getInitializer()``

  Returns the initial value for a ``GlobalVariable``.  It is not legal to call
  this method if there is no initializer.

.. _BasicBlock:

The ``BasicBlock`` class
------------------------

``#include "llvm/IR/BasicBlock.h"``

header source: `BasicBlock.h
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/BasicBlock_8h_source.html>`_

doxygen info: `BasicBlock Class
<http://llvm.org/doxygen/classllvm_1_1BasicBlock.html>`_

Superclass: Value_

This class represents a single entry single exit section of the code, commonly
known as a basic block by the compiler community.  The ``BasicBlock`` class
maintains a list of Instruction_\ s, which form the body of the block.  Matching
the language definition, the last element of this list of instructions is always
a terminator instruction (a subclass of the TerminatorInst_ class).

In addition to tracking the list of instructions that make up the block, the
``BasicBlock`` class also keeps track of the :ref:`Function <c_Function>` that
it is embedded into.

Note that ``BasicBlock``\ s themselves are Value_\ s, because they are
referenced by instructions like branches and can go in the switch tables.
``BasicBlock``\ s have type ``label``.

.. _m_BasicBlock:

Important Public Members of the ``BasicBlock`` class
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* ``BasicBlock(const std::string &Name = "", Function *Parent = 0)``

  The ``BasicBlock`` constructor is used to create new basic blocks for
  insertion into a function.  The constructor optionally takes a name for the
  new block, and a :ref:`Function <c_Function>` to insert it into.  If the
  ``Parent`` parameter is specified, the new ``BasicBlock`` is automatically
  inserted at the end of the specified :ref:`Function <c_Function>`, if not
  specified, the BasicBlock must be manually inserted into the :ref:`Function
  <c_Function>`.

* | ``BasicBlock::iterator`` - Typedef for instruction list iterator
  | ``BasicBlock::const_iterator`` - Typedef for const_iterator.
  | ``begin()``, ``end()``, ``front()``, ``back()``,
    ``size()``, ``empty()``
    STL-style functions for accessing the instruction list.

  These methods and typedefs are forwarding functions that have the same
  semantics as the standard library methods of the same names.  These methods
  expose the underlying instruction list of a basic block in a way that is easy
  to manipulate.  To get the full complement of container operations (including
  operations to update the list), you must use the ``getInstList()`` method.

* ``BasicBlock::InstListType &getInstList()``

  This method is used to get access to the underlying container that actually
  holds the Instructions.  This method must be used when there isn't a
  forwarding function in the ``BasicBlock`` class for the operation that you
  would like to perform.  Because there are no forwarding functions for
  "updating" operations, you need to use this if you want to update the contents
  of a ``BasicBlock``.

* ``Function *getParent()``

  Returns a pointer to :ref:`Function <c_Function>` the block is embedded into,
  or a null pointer if it is homeless.

* ``TerminatorInst *getTerminator()``

  Returns a pointer to the terminator instruction that appears at the end of the
  ``BasicBlock``.  If there is no terminator instruction, or if the last
  instruction in the block is not a terminator, then a null pointer is returned.

.. _Argument:

The ``Argument`` class
----------------------

This subclass of Value defines the interface for incoming formal arguments to a
function.  A Function maintains a list of its formal arguments.  An argument has
a pointer to the parent Function.